Skip to main content

Full text of "Outlines of the natural history of Great Britain and Ireland, containing a systematic arrangement and concise description of all the animals, vegetables and fossiles which have hitherto been discovered in these kingdoms"

See other formats

TK D. H. HILL im^ 


& tXUMi. COi 

QH 13-1 

\h ^.<^^ 


This book must not be 
taken from the Library 

25M JUNE 58 FORM 2 


O F T H E 


O F 





A fyftematic Arrangement and concife Defcription of 
all the Animals, Vegetables, and Foffiles which have 
hitherto been difcovered in thefe Kingdoms. 


VOL. I. 

Comprehending the Animal Kingdom. 


Printed for P. Elmsly (SuccefTor to Mr. Va ill ant) 
facing Southampton-llreet, in the Strand. 


T O 




My Lord, 

IPrefume to dedicate to Your Lord- 
fliip the refult of my amufement 
during my late refidence in the Coun- 
try ; a book which, for the fake of 
this Nation, I requeffc that you will 
never read. The fubjecfl, though of 
confequence to fome individuals, is be- 

A 2 neath 



neath the attention of a Secretary of 
State. But no man knows better than 
Your Lordfhip tlie importance of the 
office you fill -, therefore no man is lefs 
likely to indulge in trivial ftudies or 

Why then, it may be aflced, do I 
trouble You with a book, with the 
fubjed: of which You ought to remain 
unacquainted ? If Your Lordfhip afk 
the queftion, I will honeftly tell You, 
that my motives are gratitude and va- 
nity. With regard to the firft, it is 
all I have to offer for obligations which 
I can never forget j and concerning 
the latter, I could not refift the oppor- 
tunity of boafting to the world, that I 
am not difregarded by a Minifter of 



State, confpicuous for abilities, firm- 
nefs and integrity -, a Minifler whom 
fadion and ignorance may cenfure, 
but whom all wife and good men, of 
the prefent and of fucceeding ages, 
will admire and applaud. 

I am. 

My Lord, 

Your Lordfliip's 
Moft obedient 

and humble fervant. 

John Berkenhout. 
A 3 

PR E F A C E. 

THE prefcnt age is diftinguilhecl by no 
event fo charadleriftic as the improve- 
ment of Natural Hiftory. There were in-- 
deed many curious naturalifts in former 
times, particularly in the laft age and in 
this country, to whofe labours v,^e owe great 
obligation ; but for want of a clear idea of 
fyftem, their writings were confufed, and 
.the ftudy of nature remained too difficult to 
become general. To form a regular fcien- 
tific Syftem of Nature was refcrved for the 
great, the celebrated, the indefatigable Lin- 
naeus, whofe genius and induftry can hard- 
ly be fufRciently admired. 

Neverthelefs, the Linnsean Syftem hativ 
met with fome opponents, and many ob- 
jcdions have been made to particular parts 
of it i but this oppofition, and thefe ob- 
jedions, were infufficient to prevent its be- 
ing univerfally received and adopted. 

A 4 That 

viii PREFACE. 

That the Syftem is imperfed is mofi: cer- 
tain ; but thole who expert j)erfedlion in a 
fyftem of Nature, are uhacquainted'With tlie 
fubjecft. The works of the Creator are link- 
ed together in one continued perfedb chain, 
fo as to admit of no abfolute divifion, an4 
confequently can never be reduced to a po- 
fitive fyftemt All that we can exped is 
fuch an artificial arrangement and divifion 
of bodies into kingdomvS, clafles, orders, 
genera, and fpecies, as may enable us to 
diftinguilb, with precifion, one body from 
another. In this attempt Linnssus has fuc- 
ceeded much better than any preceding 
writer, ancient or modern j -Linnaeus, there- 
fore, I have follov/ed implicitly : I mean 
in regard to arrangement. But as the Na- 
tural Hiflory of a particular country admits 
of more precifion and explanation, than a 
general Syftem, I have added to, and fre- 
quently varied from his defcriptions : fo that 
, thofe who may, at firft fight of this work, 
fuppofe it to be nothing more than a tranf- 
lation of Linnseus, will, upon comparing 
it^with the Syjiema Natur^^ find themfelves 

2 Thefe 


Thefe volumes being intended as pocket 
companions for young Natualifts in their 
excurfions from home, I have avoided fwel- 
ling the work with references to the authors 
I have confuked, quoting thofe only which 
are either omitted, or wrong quoted, by 
Linnseus in his laft edition of the Syjlema 
Nature : for the reft, I muft refer the Rea- 
der to that Work. 

The remaining two volumes, containing 
the Vegetable and Foflile Kingdoms will be 
publilhed with convenient fpeed. 


••t-> *. 

The Animal Kingdom is divided 
into fix Claffes, viz. 

Clafs f. Mammalia. Suckle their young. 

II. Birds. Body covered with feathers. 

III. Amphibia. Lungs arbitrary. , 

IV. Fishes. Breathe by gills, not arbitrarily. 

V. .Insects. Two antenna, or feelers. 
VI. Vermes. No head. 


Order I. Primates. Four parallel foreteeth. Tw» 
perioral tnamma. 
II. Fene. Upper fore teeth 6; canine teeth 
2 in each jaw. 

III. GUres. Fore- teeth fharp, 2 in each jaw. 

No canine teeth. 

IV. Pccora. No upper fore-teeth. Under 

fore-teeth 8. Hoof divided. Horns. 
V. BeUita. Fore-teeth more than 2 in each 
jaw. No horns. 

VI. Cete. No legs. 

n. B I R D s. - 

Order I. Aciphres. Bill and claws arched, 
II. Pica. Bill comprefled, curved a little. 

III. Anferes. Bill obtufe at the end. Feet 
: , webbed or finned. 

IV. Gralla. Legs very long. 

V. GalUna. Bill convex ; the upper man- 
dible arched. Toes connected by a 
2 membrane 

( xii ) 

membrane at the bottom. Tail- 
feathers more than 12. 
VI. PaJJeres. Bill conic, pointed. Noftrils 
oval, broad, naked. 


Order I. Reptiles. Feet 4. 

\\. Serpents, No legs. No fins. 
III. Nantes. No Icales. Rays of their fins 


Order I. Apodes. No ventral fins. 

II. Jugiilares. Ventral fins before the pec- 
III. Thoracici. Ventral fins under the pec- 
JV. Abdominales. Ventral fins behind the 


Order I. Coleoptera. Wings 2, covered by 2 fhells, 
divided by a longitudinal future. 
II. Hemtptera. Sliells, or covers of the 
wings fomewhat "foft and incumbent 
on each other. 

III. Lepidoptera. Wings 4, imbricated with 

minute fcales. 

IV. Neuroptera. Wings 4, naked, tranf- 

parent, reticulated with veins or 
nerves. Tail without fting. 
V. Hymenoptcra. Wings 4, membraneous. 
Tail of the female armed with a fting. 

■ VI. Dip- 


( xiii ) 

VI. Dlptera. Wings 2. 
VII. Jptera. No wings. 


Order I. Intejlina. Naked, fimple, without limbs. 
II. Mollujca. Simple, without ftell ; but 
not entirely v/ithout limbs. 

III. Tejtacea. Inclofed in a hard fhcll move- 

able by the animal. 

IV. Lithopkyta. Coral. 

V. Zoophyia. Stems vegetating and chang- 
ing into animals. 





Suckle their Young. Quadrupeds, except the 
laft Order. 


Four parallel upper fore-teeth. Two peroral 

HOMO. Fore-teeth fharp-edged. Walks 

i. Sapiens. Rational Man. 

VESPERTILIO. Teeth fharp-pointed. 

1. Auritus. Long-eared Bat. Ears double and 

larger than the head. Len^ith not 
quite two inches. 

2. Murinus. Short-eared Bat. Length 2 \ 


B IIL FER.*:, 



III. F E R iE. 

Upper fore teeth 6, fomewhat fiiarp and 
conici Canine teeth 2 in each jaw, longer 
than the reft. 

PHOCA. Hind legs horizontal. Feet 

1. Vitulina. SeaU or Sea Calf. No external 
ears. Length 5 or 6 feet. Frequent 
on the rocky fliores of Wales, Corn- 
wall, and Ireland. 

CANIS. Fore teeth in each jaw 6. Grin- 
ders 6 or 7. Canine teeth curved. 
Lateral fore teeth longer and diftant 
from the reft; the intermediate ones 
lobed. Five toes before, 4 behind, 

1. Familiaris. Do^. Tail bends to the left. 


Varieties. Majliff^ Hound, Greyhound^ 
Pointer, Spaniel, Terrier, Shock, Lap- 
dog, Cur, 

2. Vulpes. Fox, Tail a brufli, not bent, and 

tipt v/ith white. Lips white. Fore- 
feet black. 

FELIS. Fore-teeth equal. Grinders 6 in 
each jaw. Tongue rough. Claws r?- 

I. Catus. Cat. Tail long, annulated. Body- 
marked with fpirai, and 3 longitudinal 
ftripes. Our tame cats are lefs in ftze, 
and vary in colour. 


MUSTELA. Fore-teeth in each jaw 6 j 
thofe of the under-jaw clofe, obtufe, 
with two interior ones. Body long 
and flender. Legs fliort. Five toes on 
each foot. 

i. Lutra. Otter. Colour dark brown, with 
two v/hite fpots on each iide the note; 
Length 3 feet 3 inches. Tail com- 
preflcd and taper. Eyes fmall. Ears 
Ihort. Long whifkers. Feet webbed. 

2. Martes. Martbu Colour dark brown. 

Throat and bread: white, or yellow. 
Length 2 feet and a half. Canine 
teeth large. Skin and excrement fmell 
like mufk. Nofe fharp. 

3. Putorius. Polecat, Length about two fce^. 

Colour blackifh tawny. Muzzle and 
ears white. Nofe fliarp. 

4. Erminea. Sioat^ or ErTnlne. Upper part of 

the body pale brown; under v/hite. 
Tail tipt with black, ears and toes with 
white. Length 15 inches. 

5. Nivalis. IFeefcl^ or Foumart. Upper part of 
■■ the body and tail entirely tawny. 

Throat and belly white. Length 9 

URSUS. Fore teeth in each jaw 6 ; up- 
per ones excavated. Grinders 5 or-6". 
Body thick and clumfy. Toes 5 on 
each foot. 

i. Meles. Badger. Length 2 feet and half. Up- 
per part of the body grey j under, black. 
B 2 Tail 


Tail fhort, with long ftiff hair. Face 
black and white. Fore claws long. A 
tranfverfe orifice between the tail and 
the anus. Three black briftles over 
each eye. 

TALPA. Upper fore-teeth 6 j lower 8. 

1. Europaea. Mole. Five toes on each foot. 

Snout long. Eyes fmall. Fur remark- 
ably foft. No external ears. Fore legs 
fhort, with broad feet turned outwards. 

SOREX. Upper fore-teeth 2, bifid j 
lower 4 ; canine feveral. 

\. Aruneus. Shrew-Moufe. Snout and tail long. 
Above brown ; Beneath dirty white. 
Toes 5 on each foot. Eyes fmall. 
Length 4 inches. 

ERINACEUS. Fore-teeth 2 in each 
jaw J canine teeth 4 above, 3 beneath. 

2. Europaeus. Hedgehog, Five toes on each foot. 

Long Snout. Body covered with long 
fharp briftles. Length 1 1 inches. 


Fore- teeth 2 in each jaw, remote from the grin- 
ders. No canine teeth. 

LEPUS. Ears long. Tail fhort. Up- 
per foreteeth double. Toes 5 before, 
4 behind, 

I. Timidas» 


1. Timidus. Hare. Ears tipt with black. 

2, Cuniculus. Rabbit. Ears almoft naked. Pupil 

of the eyes red. 

MUS. Lower fore-teeth fmall, pointed. 
Toes 4 before, 5 behind. Tail long. 

I. Norvegicus. Norway Rat. Length to the tail 
9 inches ; tail 9 inches. Back tawny. 
Belly dirty white. Feet and legs al- 
moft bare. Tail fcaly. Omitted by 

•2. Terreftris. Short-taiVd Fleld-moufe. Head 
large. Length to the tail 6 inches ; 
tail I 4- inch, ending in abrulh. Back 
rufty black j belly afh colour. 

3. Amphibius. Water Rat. Length to the tail 

7 inches ; tail 5. Body covered with 
long hairs brownifh black. Belly grey. 
Tail black, white at the extremity. 
Ears and eyes fmall. 

4. Rattiis. Common Rat. Tail longer than tfie 

body. On the fore feet 4 claws and a 
kind of thumb nail ; behind 5. White 

5. Mufculus. Common Moufe. Differs very lit- 

tle from the Common Rat, except in 
being much lefs. 

6. Avellanarius. Dormoufe. Toes 4 before, 5 

. behind, the interior of which wants 
the nail. Tail 2 \ inches, thick fet 
with hair. Colour tawny red. Throat 
white. Size of the common moufe. 

B 3 7. Sylv*^ 


7, Sylvaticus. Long- tailed Field Moufe. DifFer 

from the common rat and common 

moui'e chiefly in being lefs than the 

i former and larger than the latter. Back 

brown. Belly grey. 

^. Lefs Long-tailed Field Monfe. 

From nofe to tail 2 \ inches; tail 2 
inches. Weight 4 of an ounce. Ears 
naked. Back and belly divided by a 
, . ilrait line on each fide. 

SCIURUS. Upper fore-teeth like wedges4 
lower comprefled,,, I 

4;. yulgtiris. . Squirrel. Colour red - brown ; 
breaft ^nd belly v.'hlte. • Ears tufted. 

.iV. P.E.eORA. 

• 'D }K '!)irfw (''■ 
Upper fore-teeth none. Under fore-teeth 
B^ diftant from the grindefs., Canipe teeth none. 
Hoof divided. ^, ^.^^ :,;ii nO .(->,.. 
;m. /.'CERVUS; Hornsrfulid, riugH, annual. 

1. Elaphus. Stag, Red Deer, or Hart. Horns 
V ^ . -round, branched, and turn backward. 

'2. 'Mma. '":&iick, or Fallow Deer. Horns com- 
prelled, branched, turned backward, 
' ^nd broad at the extremities. 

3. Capreolus. Roebuck.' Horns round, ereft, 

'; ,and bifid at the extremity. Leaft fpe- 

■ cies, In the highlands of Scotland. 
..,;jor- *• ' & CAPRA. 


CAPRA. Horns hollow, rough, fimplc, 
ere£t, bending backwards. Body co- 
vered with long hair. 

1. Hircus. Goat. Horns edged on the interior 
fide, round on the exterior. Long 

OVIS. Horns rough, hollow, fimplc, 
fpiral, turning outwards. Body go- 
vered with wool. 

I. Aries. Sheep. Horns comprefled. 

BOS. Horns fmooth, fimple, hollow. 

J, Taurus. Ox. Horns round, curving up- 
wards and outwards. 

Y$: B E L L U ^. 

Fore-teeth, in each jaw, obtufe, truncated. 
No horns. 

EQUUS. Fore-teeth 6 in each jaw. 
Hoof undivided. 

1. Caballus. Horfe. Tail covered entirelv 

with long hair. Ears fhort, ereit. 
Mane long. 

2. Afinus. Jfs. Long hair towards the ex- 

tremity of the tail. Ears long, flaccid. 
A black crofs on the top of the 

SUS. Hoof divitie^. 2 tufe i^n each jaw. 
B 4 I, Sctofa. 


I. Scrbfa. Hog. Ridge befet with ftrong 


Spiracula, or fpout in the upper furface of 
the head. Perioral foft fins. Tail horizontal. 
Copulate like quadrupeds, which they refemble 
glfo in the ftrudurc and ufe of their internal 

BAL^NA. No teeth. Spout double. 

1. Myfticetus. Whale. No dorfal fin. Spout 

in the middle of the head. Under 
jaw much larger than the upper. Eyes 
very frr.all and diftant from e?.ch other. 
Skin fmooth. Belly white. The largeft 
of all animals. Dde Harw. 409. 

2. Phyfalus. Fin-back Whale. A dorfal fin near 

the tail. Body long and fmall. Belly 
fmooth. Dale Hariu. 410. 

3. Boops. Pike-headed^ or Sharp-nofed IVhale. 

Horny protuberance on the back to- 
wards the tail. Back fmooth and (hin- 
ing. Longitudinal folds on the belly. 
Dale Harw, 410. Sib. Ohf. 29. 

4. Mufculus. Round-nojed Wl^ale . A dorfal fin. 

Under jaw much larger than the upper. 
Belly folded. Sib. Obf. 33. 

PHYSETER. Teeth in the under jaw. 

X. Catodon. Lefs IVhale. No dorfal fin. Spout 
in the nofe. 

2. Mar 


2. Macrocephalus. Sper?na-ceti IVkale. No dor- 

fal fin. Spoilt in tlie back part of the 
head. Double row of teeth in num- 
ber 46. Length 50 or 60 feet. 

3. Microps. Sharp-toothed TJ^ljak. Dorfal fin 

long. Upper maxilla longer than the 
under. Teeth hooked. Spout in the 
middle of the nole. 

4. Turfio. Blunt-toothed Whale. Dorfal fin very 

long and eredl. Spout in the forehead. 

DELPHINUS. Teeth in each jaw. One 
dorfal fin. 

1. Phoccena. Porpefs. Back broad and black. 

Belly white. Nofe ftiort, obtufe. 
Teeth fmall, acute. 

2. Delphis. Dolphin. Body long, and nearly 

round. Nofe long, (harp, with a broad 
tranfverfe mark. Teeth fmall, point- 
ed. Length 9 or 10 feet. 

3. Orca. Grampus. Teeth obtufe. Nofe turned 

a little upwards. Upper jaw much lefs 
than the under. Length 24 feet. 





Body covered with Feathers. 


BirJs of prey. Bill and claws flrong, hook- 
ed. An angle in each margin of the upper man- 
dible. Body mufcular. Females larger and more 
beautiful than the males. 

FALCO. Bill arched from the bafe, which 
is covered with a wax-like membran* 
or cere. 

1. Oflefragus. Sea Eagle. Cere yellow. Co- 

lour light brown. Legs yellow and 
feathered half way down. Tail fpotted 
with white. . Claws black. In feveral 
parts of Britain and Ireland^ 

2. Chryfaetos. Golden Eagle. Cere and legs 

yellow, feathered to the toes. Wings 
reach to the extremity of the tail. 
Beak lead colour. Irrides hazel. Co- 
lour dark brown. "Weight 12 pounds. 
Tail clouded with dark afh colour. In 
the mountainous parts of Ireland, an4 
fometimcs in Wales. 

*?. Fulvus. 


tf Fulvus. Ringtail Eagle. Refembles the laft 
in fize and colour, but diftinguifhed 
by a broad white band acrofs the tail. 

4. Albiulla. Ente. Bill, cere, irrides and legs 

pale yellow. Between the eyes bare. 
Head and neck afh colour. Body dark 
brown. Tail white. Lefs than the 
former. Lin. Syjl, Nat. Ed. 12. p. 123. 

5. Pygargus. Hen-Harrier. Male : cere and 
' feet yellow. Above grey ; beneath 

white. Weight 12 ounces. Length 
17 inches. Female: A rough round 
the head. Under each eye a white 
fpot. Back dufky ; rump white. Belly 
redifh brown. Weight 16 ounces. 
Length 20 inches. 

^. Milvus. Kite. Cere and legs yellow. Head 
grey. Back brown. Tail forked. Flies 
remarkably fteady. 

-7. Gentilis. Falcon Gentle. Cere, irrides, and 
feet yellow. Above deep brown. Breaft 
and belly yellowifh with longitudinal 
fpots. 5 or 6 broad bars acrofs the 
tail. Feather of the head black edged 
with brown. Sib. Scot. II. lib. 3. p. 14. 

€. Subbuteo. Hobby, or T7'ee Falcon. Cere and 
feet yellow. Above black brown. Be- 
neath white, with long brown fpots on 
the breaft. Back of the neck white. 
Under each eye a dark longitudinal 
fpot. Length 12 inches. Weight of 
the male 7 ounces. 

,9. Butco. Common Buzzard. Cere and feet 



pale yellow. Beak lead colour. Above 
ferruginous brown. Beneath yellowifli 
white, fpotted with brown. Tail barred 
with black and afh colour, and tipt 
with brownifh white. Weight 32 
oz. Length 22 inches. 

10. Tinnunculus. Kejlril. Cere and feet yel- 

low. Male: Head light grey : tail the 
fame, with a black bar near the end 
and tipt with white. Back purple 
fpotted with black. Weight 6 ~ oz. 
Length 14 inches. Female : Back lefs 
bright. Head and tail pale brown fpot- 
ted with black. Weight 11 ounces. 

11. Lanarius. Lanner. Cere yellow-blue. Bill 

and feet blue. Above deep brown. 
Beneath yellow-white, with brown 
fpots. A white line above each eye. 

12. Haliaetus. Ofprcy. Cere and feet blue. 

Back brown. Belly and back of the 
head white. A brown patch from the 
eye down each fide- the neck. Legs 
naked. Weight 62 oz. Length 23 

13. Gyrfalco. Gyr falcon. Cere and feet blue. 

Beak and legs yellow. Body white 
fpotted with dark lines. Length 20 

14. Apivorus. Honey Buzzard. Cere and bill 

black. Legs yellow and half naked. 
Head afti colour. Back brown. Breaft 
and belly white, fpotted. Tail barred. 
Claws brown and not much curved. 
Weight 30 oz. Length 23 inches. 

15, iEru-r 


15. i^ruginofus. Moor Buzzard. Cere green ifh 
yellow. Body chocolate tinged with 
brown. Legs Ion? and flender. Beak 
and Talons black. Weight 20 oz. 
Length 21 inches. 

>6. Palumbarius. Gos Haivk. Cere yellow-green. 
Irrides and feet yellow. Beak and 
talons black. Head and back deep 
brown. Breaft and belly white waved 
with brown. A white line above the 
eye. Tail barred and much longer 
than the wings when folded. Length 
22 inches, 

17. Nifus. Sparrow Haivk. Cere green-yellow. 
Feet yellow. Bill blue. Claws black. 
Above brown, or grey. Beneatih tawny 
white, waved with brown. Tail afh 
colour, barred and tipt with white. 
Weight of the male 5 oz. female 9. 

18 Peregrine Falcon. Cere, irrides, 

legs and feet yellow. Beak blue. Claws 
black. Above afh colour barred with 
black and blue. Beneath white tinned 
with brown, with longitudinal and 
tranfverfe lines. Length 16 inches. 
Builds annually in the rocks of Llan- 
didno in Carnarvonfli. 

19. ...... Grey Falcon. Cere and legs yel- 
low. Irrides red. Fore part of the 
head deep brown ; hind part white. 
Sides of the head and throat cream co- 
lour. Belly white v.'ith long black 
fpots. Back deep grey. Wings folded 



extend beyond the extremity of trie 
tail. Legs long and naked. 

20 Merlin. Cere and legs yellow; 

Bill lead colour. Above purpleifh a(h 
colour with ferruginous fpots. Beneath 
yellowifti white with brown fpots. 
Tail barred with brown. Length 6 ^ 

STRIX. Bill (hort, hooked, without 
cere. Head large. A broad difk fur- 
rounding each eye. Legs feathered to 
the toes. Tongue bifid. Nocturnal. 

1. Otus. Long- eared Owl. Bill and claws black. 

Plumage red-brown variegated with 
white. Auricular feathers 6. Length 
of the female 14 inches. In the North 
and in Wales. 

2. . . . « . Short-eared Owl. Horns, or Ears a 

fingle feather. Above brown. Be- 
neath pale yellow. Qiiill feathers bar- 
red with red. Tip of the tail v;hitei 
Length 13 inches and a half. Br. Zool. 
71. 8vo. 156. 

3. Flammea. White Owl. Above pale yellow, 

with white fpots. Beneath white. In- 
terior fides of the quill feathers 4 black 
fpots on each fide. Edge of the mid- 
dle claw ferrated. Weight ii ounces. 
Length 14 inches. 

4. StriJuIa. Tawny Owl. Above tawny red, 

fpotted with black and white. Be- 


neath yellowifh with black longitudinal 

5. Ulula. Brown Oivl. Above deep brown fpot- 

ted with black and white. Beneath 
pale afh colour mixt with tawny, with 
black {Irokes. Diik round the eyes aih 
colour with brown fpots, 

6. PafTerina. Litt/e Owl. Not much larger than 

a thrufh. Irrides and bill pale yellow. 
Above olive brown with white fpots. 
Beneath white with brown fpots. In 
Yorkiliire, Flintihire, and fometimes 
near London. 

LANIUS. Bill hooked towards the end, 
with a notch in the upper mandible. 
Tongue jagged. 

1. Excubitor. Great ojh coloured Butcher bird. 

Bill and legs black. Tail wedged, 
black in the middle and white on the 
fides. Crown and back afh colour. 
Win2;s black with a white bar. Cheeks 
white with a black flroke. Weight 3 
oz. Leno-th 10 inches. Migrates. 

2. Collurio. Red- backed Butcher Bird, or Flujher. 

Bill and Tail like the former. Head, 
rump, and legs afh colour. Back red- 
brown. Beneath blofibm. Black ftroke 
acrofs the eyes. Weight 2 oz. Length 
7 ~ inches. 

2 Wood Chat. Bill horn colour, with 

white feathers at the bafe. Black line 

crofs tiie eye, extending clown the 

5 neck. 

l6 BIRDS. P I C JE. 

neck. Head and back of the neck 
bright bay. Back dufky. Scapulars 
white. Q^iill feathers black, with a 
white fpot towards the bottom. Breaft 
and belly yellowifh white. Two mid- 
dle feathers of the tail and legs black. 
Size like the former. Br. Zool. fol. 74.. 
8vo. 164. Migrates. 


Bill comprefTed, convex. 

CORVUS. Bill ftrong, conic, with brif- 
tles at its bafe reflected downwards. 
Tongue bifid. 

1. Corax. Raven. Above fhining bluifti black. 

Beneath dufky. Weight 3 pounds. 
Length 26 inches. 

2. Corone. Crow. The whole body bluifh 

black. Tail rounded. Weight 20 
oz. Length 18 inches. 

3. Frugilegus. Rook. Colour bluifh black. 

Noftrils, chin and fides of the mouth 
white and bare. Somewhat larger than 
the laft. 

4. Comix. Royjion-Crotu. Back, breaft, belly, 

and upper part of the neck afli colour ; 
the reft bluifti black. Weight 22 oz. 
Length 22 inches. Migrates. 

3. Frugilegus. Rook. Colour bluifti black. 

Noftrils, chin and fides o( the mouth 

I white 


white and bare. Somewhat larger than 
the laft. 

5. Alonedula. Jackdaw. Back of the Head, 

Breaft a.nd Belly afti colour ; the reft 
black. Irides white. Weight 9 oz. 
Length 13 inches. 

6. Glandarius. 'Jay. Head covered with long 

feathers. Forehead white with black 
ftrokes. Neck black. Coverts of the 
Wings fine blue, barred with black and 
white. Back, Breaft, and Belly, purple, 
daftied with grey. Rump white. Tail 
black. Weight 6 oz. Length 13 

7. Caryocatafles. Nutcracker. Brown, fpotted 

with triangular white fpots. Wings 
black. Tail black, rounded, tipt with 
white. Rare in this Kingdom. 

8. Pica. Magpye. Black and white. Tail, long, 

wcdge-fafhioned and richly tinged. 
Weight 9 oz. Length 18 inches. 

9. Graculus. Cornijh Cough. Purplifh black. 

Bill and Legs orange. Weigh; 13 oz. 
Length 16 inches. Cornwall^ FlintJ}). 
Caernarvonjlnrc, and Jnglefea. 

COR ACIAS. Bill fharp-edged, and curved 
towards the apex. 

I. Garrula. Roller. Colour greenifli blue. 
Back red-brown. Bill black. Legs 
yellow. Tail forked. Weight 7 oz. 
Length 1 3 inches. Rare in this illand. 


l8 BIRDS. P I C M, 

CUCULUS. Bill roundifti and curved a 
little. Noftrils circular, with a raifed 
margin. Tongue entire, pointed. Two 
fore and 2 hind claws. 

I. Canorus. Cucho. Above afh-colour. Be- 
neath white, waved with tranfverfe black 
lines. Tail rounded and fpotted with 
white. Weight 5 oz. Length 14 
inches. Migrates. 


YUNX. Bill fliort, roundifh, pointed. 
Noftrils concave, naked. Tongue very 
long, cylindrical. Two fore and two 
hind claws. 

I . Torquilla. Wryneck. Above afh-colour, with 
i)lack and brown ftrokes. Beneath 
light brown, with black fpots. Tail 
alh-colour, with 4 black bars. Irides 
hazel. Weight li oz. Length 7 inches. 

PICUS. Bill angular, ftrait. Noftrils co- 
vered with recumbent briftles. Ton- 
gue very long and round, with a fliarp, 
hard, barbed point. Two fore and 2 
hind claws. 

1. Viridis. Green TVoodpecker. Crown crimfon. 
Back green. Rump pale yellow. Be- 
neath pale green. Tail tipt with black. 
Bill lead colour. Legs and Feet greenifti 
afli-colour. Weight 6^ oz. Length 
13 inches. 

•2. Major. 

B I R D S. PIC JE, 19 

2. Major. '^Greater fpotted Woodpecker. Irides 

red. Crown of the Kead black, back 
part crimfon. A black collar round 
the neck. Back and Rump black. 
Cheeks and Scapulars white. Breaft 
yellovvifh white. Weight 3 bz. Length 
9 inches. 

3. Medius. Lejs fpttcd Woodpecker . Crown and 
^- back of the Head crimfon. Above black. 

Scapulars white. On each fide the 
Breaft a broad black line. Length 8 i- 
inches. Three exterior feathers of the 
Tail tipt with white. 

4. Minor. Lcajl fpotted IVoodpecker. Crown 

crimfon. Above black barred with 
white. Beneath (iirty v^-hitc. Weight 
I oz. Len2:th 6 inches. In the Fe- 
male the crown is white. 

SITTA. Bill ftrait, roundi{h, and com- 
prefTed at the apex. Three fore and i 
hind Toe. 

Europsa. Nuthatch^ or Woodcracker, Upper 
mandible black, lower white. Crov/n 
black. Black firokc acrnfs the Eyes. 
Cheeks and Chin v/hite. Coverts of the 
Wings bluifli afh-colour. Beneath dull 
orange. Legs pale yellow. Twelve 
feathers in the Tail. Weight i oz. 
Length 6 inches. 

ALCEDO. Bill triangular, thick, ftrait, 
long. Tongue fliort, fliarp. 

C 2 I. Ifpida. 


I. Ifplda. Kmgfijher. Bill, upper mandible 
black, under yellow. Crown and Co- 
verts of the Wings dark green, fpotted 
with blue. Scapulars and Coverts of 
the Tail bright azure. Beneath orange. 
Tail deep blue. Feet orange. Weight 
i^ oz. Length 7 inches. 

UPUPA. Bill arched, convex, and fome- 
what obtufe. 

I . Epops. Hoopoe. Crefl: orange, tipt with black, 
2 inches long. Bill and Legs black. 
Neck tinged with red. Beneath v\^hite. 
Above barred with black and white. 
Rump v/hite. Tail of 10 feathers 
black and white. Migrates. 

CERTHIA. Bill arched, flender, and fome- 
what angular. Tongue fharp. 

I. Familiaris. Creeper. Above brown, ftreaked 
with black. Quills tipt with white. 
Beneath white. Tail of 12 long fea- 
thers. Weight 5 drams. Length 5^ 



Bill obtufe, covered with a thin membrane, 
broad, gibbous below the bafe, fwtlled at the 
apex. Tongue fiefliy, Legs naked. Feet webbed, 
or finned. 


BIRDS. A N S E R E S. 21 

ANAS. Bill convex above, flat beneath, 
hooked at the apex, with membraneous 

2. Cygnus. JVild Swan. Cere yellow. Bill 
black. Plumage white. Legs and 
Feet brown. 

Manfuetus. Tame Szvan. Cere knotty 
and black. Bill red, tiptwith 
black. Feet lead colour. 
Larger than the former. 

2. Tadorna. Sheldrake, or Burrough Duck. Bill 

red. Head dark creen. Neck and 
Back v/hite. Scapulars black. Breaft 
orange. Belly white, divided by a lon- 
gitudinal black line. Tail white, tipt 
with black. Legs pale red. Weight 
2lb. 10 oz. Length 2 feet. On the 
fea coaft. 

3. Fufca, Velvet Duck. Bill broad and fhort, 

fides yellow, hook red, and a black tu- 
bercle at the bafe. Plumage black, 
with a white fpot behind each Eye, and 
on each Wing. Legs red ; Webs and 
Nails black. Female: deep brown. 

^. Nigra. Scoter, or black Diver. Plumage en- 
tirely black. Bill black, yellow in the 
middle, with tvvol.irge red tubercles at 
the bafe. The Sorbonne pronounced 
this bird to be a fifh, and therefore 
might be eaten in Lent. 

5. Marila. Scaup Duck. Bill lead colour. Plead, 

Neck, Breafl^, and Tail black. Belly 

white. Back grey. Lefs Qinlls white 

C 3 ti^rt 

22 BIRDS. A N S E R E S. 

tipt with black. This fpecies varies 
greatly in colour. 

6. Anfer. Goofe. In its wild ftate, above brown, 

Bene:ith white. A white ring round 
the Tail. Bill narrow, middle red, 
bafe and hook black. 

7. Erythropus. White-fronted Mid Goofe. Bill 

orange, thicker and larger than the laft. 
Forehead white. Crown brown. Breaft 
adi-colour. Belly white, with large 
black fpots. Back grey. Tail black. 
Legs orange. 

S. Barnacle. Bill black. A black line 

from the Bill to the Eyes. Forehead 
and Cheeks v/hite. Back of the Head, 
Neck, and Shoulders black. Back gxty. 
Belly white. Tail and Legs black. 
Frequent in Winter on the north-wefl 

o. Bernicla. Brent Goof. Head, Neck, Tail, 
"" Quills, Legs black. Breaft, Scapulars 

.ind Coverts of the Wings afli- colour. 

Frequent in Ireland, where they are 

called Bernacles. 

ic. Molliflima. Eider Duck. Bill, Forehead, 
Bellv, Tail, and Quills black. Crown, 
Cheeks, Neck, Back, Coverts of the 
Wings and Scapulars white. A black 
bar atrofs the Eyes. A green ftain on 
the back of the Neck. Legs green. 

ii. Clypeata. Shoveller. Bill black, and very 
broad at the end. Irides hazel. Head 
dark ^reen. Breaft and Scapulars white. 



Back brown. Coverts of the Wings 
blue. Tail of 14 feathers, exteriors 
white, thofe in the middle black, edged 
with white. Vent feathers black. 
Legs red. Weight 22 oz. Length 22 

12 Red-breajled Shoveller. Bill large, 

broad, ferrated, brown-yellow. Head 
Jarge. Eyes fmall ; Irides yellow. 
Breaft red-brown. Barkbrown, Wings, ^ 
quills brown, the reft grey, fpot pur- 
ple, edged with white. Tail white. 
Feet red-brown. Size of a common 
Duck. Lincoln/hire. 

13. Strepera. Gadwall. Bill black. Head brown, 

fpotted with black. Breaft, Back, and 
Scapulars marked with black and white 
lines. Belly dirty white. Rump black. 
Tail afli-colour, edged with white. 
A white fpot on the Wings. Legs 

14. Clangula. Golden Eye. Bill, Back, Tail, and 

Coverts of the Wino;s black. Beneath 
white. Middle of the Wings white, the 
reft black. A white fpot on each fide the 
Mouth. Leo;s oranse. Weight 2 
pounds. Length 19 inches. Sea coaft, 
and on the lakes in Shrcpjhire. 

15. Penelops. JVigeon. Bill lead-colour tipt 

with black. Head bright bay. Back 
waved with black and white. Breaft 
purplifli. Belly white. Vent black. 
Middle quills green, tipt with black. 
Tail, 2 middle feathers black, longer, 
C 4 pointed ; 


pointed ; the reft afh-colour. Weight 
23 oz. Length 20 inches. 

16. Glacialis. SwaUcw-tair d Sheldrake. Bill, 

bafe and tip black, middle orange. 
Neck, Scapubrs, Belly, and exterior 
feathers of the Tail white. Breaft and 
Back chocolate colour. Four middle 
feathers of the Tail black, and 4 inches 
longer than the reft. On our coafts in 
hard winters only. 

17. Ferina. Pochard, or Dun Bird. Bill and 

Legs lead-colour. Head and Neck bright 
bay. Breaft and upper part of the Back 
black. Above grey, with black lines. 
Belly afli- colour. Tail of 12 feathers 
dark grey. Weight 28 oz. Length 
19 inches. 

18 Ferrugmous Duck. Bill and Legs 

pale blue. Plumage red-brown. Webs 

19. ...... Grey-headed Duck. Bill and Legs 

yellow-brown. Iridcs gold colour. 
Head and Breaft grey. Neck and Belly 
white. Back, Wings, and Tail black. 

20. Querquedula. Gargancy. Bill and Legs lead 

colour. Black fpot on the chin. A 
white line from the corner of each Eye. 
Cheeks and upper part of the Neck pale 
purple, with fmall white lines. Breaft 
brown, with black curved lines. Belly 
white. Exterior v/ebs of the middle 
quills green. 

21. Crecfa. 


21. Crecca. Teal. Bill and Vent feathers black. 

Head bay, with a green and a white 
line on each fide. Beneath dirty white. 
A green and a black fpot on the Wings. 
Coverts of the Wings brown. Tail 
pointed. Weight 12 oz. Length 17 

22. Bofchas. Mallard^ Wild or Tame Duck. 

Bill green-yellow. Head and Neck 
green. An imperfe£l: white circle round 
the Neck. Beneath grey. Scapulars 
white, barred with brown. Spot on 
the Wings purple. Tail of 24 feathers, 
4 middle ones black, and curled up- 
wards in the Male. 

23. Fuligula. Tufted Duck. Bill and Legs lead- 

colour. Creft pendent. Belly and 
middle Quills white. The reft of the 
Plumage black. Weight 2 lb. Length 
15 inches. Female wants the creft. 

MERGUS. Bill long, roundifh, taper, 
ferratcd and hooked at the apex. A 
Creft on the Head. Migrate. 

I. Merganfer. Goofander. Male: Bill, Lides 
and Legs red. Head green-black. Neck 
Breaft, and Belly, pale yellow. Wings 
and Tail black and white. Weight 41b. 
Length 2 feet 4 inches. 

Dun Diver, Female : Head ferruginous. 
Back and Tail afti-colour. 
Lefs than the Male. 

2. Serrator. 

l6 ' BIRDS. A N S E R E S.. 

2. Serrator. Lefs Dun Diver. Lower Mandible 

andlridesred. Head red-brown. Throat 
and Belly white. B;eaft and ridge of 
the Wings, Scapulars, Back, and Tail 
a{h- colour. Wings black and white. 
Weight alb. Length 21 inches. 

3. Albellus. Smew, or White Nun. Bill and 

Legs lead-colour. A long Crcft. Above 
black and white. Beneath white. 
Head and Neck white. A green-black 
fpot on each fide the Head. Tail afh- 
colour. Weight 34 oz. Length 18 

Lough Diver. Female : Lefs than the 
Male. Head ferruginous. 
Breaft clouded with grey. 

4. Minutus. Red-headed Smew. Bill lead-co- 

lour. Head red-brown, with a fmall 
Creft, and a black fpot on each lide. 
Cheeks, Throat, and Belly white. Back 
Tail and Legs afli-colour. Win2;s black 
and white. Weight 15 oz. Length 
16 inches. 

ALCA. Bill fhort, compreffed, convex, 
furrowed tranfverfely, and njt feriated. 
No back Toe. 

I. Torda. Jivk. Bill, He^d, Throat, Rack, Tail, 
Legs black. Tips of the Wings and 
Belly white. A white line from the 
Eyes to the Bill. On the upper Man- 
dible 4 grooves, on the under 3. 
Weight 22 oz. Length iB inches. 

1 2. Pica. 

BIRDS. A N S E R E S. 27 

2. Pica. Black-blird Awk. Cheeks, Chin, and 

Throat white. In other refpe6ls iilce 
the former. Weight 18 oz. Length 
15 inches. 

3. Impennis. Great Avok^ or Pinguln. Wings 

very fhort. A white fpot between 
the Eyes and Bill. Under fide of the 
Body and tips of the Wings white ; the 
reft black. Length to the end of the 
Toes 3 feet. On the ifle of St. Kilda. 

4. Arclica. Puffin. Bill comprefled, triangular, 

fliarp-pointed, red, bafe grey, furrows 4. 
Noftrils long and narrow. Eye-lids 
callous, edges crimfon. Above black. 
Cheeks, Chin, Belly white. Collar 
black. Legs orange, and near the Tail. 
Pnejiholm tjles. Anglefey. Man. M\- 

5. Alle. Little Awk. Bill fhort, conic, black. 

Above black. Beneath, and tips of 
the lefs Quills white. Scajjulars black 
and white. Legs and Feet fcaly. 
Webs black. Size of a Blackbird. 

PROCELLARIA. Bill comprefTed, hooked 
at the end. Noftrils tubular. BackToe 
feflile. Spout oil from their Bills. 

I. Pelagica. ^tormf.nch. Black. Coverts of the 
Tail and Vent white. Wings very 
long. Size of the Swallow. 

2. Glacialis 


2. Glacialis. Fulmar, Bill and Legs yellow. 

Head, Neck, Breaft, Belly white. 
Above afh-colour. Length i8 inches. 
St. Kilda. 

3. Puffinus. Shear-Water. Head, Back, Wings, 

Tail, Thighs black. Beneath white. 
Legs weak, comprefled. Length 17 
inches. Calf of Man. 

PELECANUS. Bill ftrait, hooked at the 
end ; without noftrils. Four Toes con- 
nedled by a membrane. 

1. Carbo. Corvorant. Bill afh-colour, with a 

yellow naked (kin round the bafe. 
Head and Neck black. Chin white. 
A fhort pendent Creft. Above bluifli 
green. Beneath dufky. A white tuft 
on the Thighs. Tail long and rounded. 
Legs black ; the middle claw ferrated. 
Weight 41b. Length 32 inches. 

2. Graculus. Shag. Long creft. Above green. 

Beneath brownifh grey. Tail of 12 
feathers, rounded. Feet black. Length 
27 inches. Holyhead. 

3. Bafianus. Gaiinct^ or Soland Goofe. Bill bluifh 

grey. Jagged at the lides ; a long 
furrow in the upper Mandible. Eyes 
yellow, furrounded by a blue fkin. A 
bkck pouch under the Chin. Neck 
long. Crown bufF colour. Wings 
and Legs black. The reft of the plu- 
mage dirty white. Tail rounded. 
Weight 4-i lb. Length 37 iriches. 



COLYMBUS. Bill ftraight,flender, pointed. 
Noflrils linear, at the bafe of the Bill. 
Legs near the Tail. Feet webbed. 

1. Grylle. Black Guillemot, Greenland Dove, or 

Sea Turtle. Bill black. Infide of the 
Mouth and Legs red. A large white 
fpot on each Wing. Small Quills tipt 
with white. The reft of the plumage 
black. Length 14 inches. St. Kilda. 
and Bafs IJle. 

2. TroUe. Guillemot. Bill black. Infide of 

the Mouth yellow. Tips of the fmall 
Quills, Breaft, and Belly white. The 
reft black. Weight 24 oz. Length 
17 inches. 

3. Septentrionalis. Red-throated Diver. Above 

grey. Beneath white. A few white 
fpots on the Back. Throat dull red. 
Weight 31b. Length 2 feet. Lan~ 
cajhire ; river Dee. 

4. Glacialis. Great Noriher7i Diver. Beneath 

white. A fen, ilunar white fpot on the 
back of the Neck, and under the Throat. 
All the reft black ; a purple tinge on 
the Neck. Length 3 feet 5 inches. 

Feet finned. 

5 Grey fpeckled Diver. Bill turns a 

litt'e upwards. Above grey, fpeckled 
with white. Beneath white. Tail of 
20 black feathers, fome tipt v/ith white. 

6. Criftatus. Great crejled Grebe. A pendent 
rufFunder the Chin. No Tail. Above 


30 .BIRDS. A N.S E R E S. 

black-brown. Beneath filver-white; 
Weight 2 4^ lb. Length 21 inches. 

Shropjhire, Chejhire. 

7. Auritus. Lefs crejled Grebe or Dobchtck. Above 
-black-brown. Beneath white. Head 
,and Neck black. Ridge and tips of the 
Wings white. A tuft of long feathers 
on each fide the Head. Legs green. 
Irides red. Lefs than a Teal. 

S Little Grebe. Above, Neck, Breaft 

dark red-brown. Belly, afli-colourmixt 
with filver- white. Cheeks bright bay. 
Weight 7 oz. Length 10 inches. 

g. Urinator. Grebe. Above black-brown. Be- 
neath filver-white.; Length 18 inches. 
Ridge of the Wings and tips of the 
fmall Quills white. 

10 JVhite and Dujky Grebe. Above 

black-brown. Beneath white. Ridge of 
the Wings and middle Quills white. A 
red fkin between the Bill and the Eyes. 
Irides red. Feet externally greenifli. 
Size of a Teal. Lmc$lnjhire. 

LARUS. Bill ftraight, fharp-edged, hooked 
at the end, a knob on the lower man- 
dible. Noftrils nacrow, in the middle 
of the Bill. Feet webbed. 

I. Tridaililus, Tarrock. Bill, tips of the Wings, 
and tip of the Tail black. Head, Neck, 
Breaft, Belly, and Tail white. A black 
crefcent on the back of the Neck. 
Back bluifh grey. Legs dull a(h-co- 


BIRDS. A N S E R E S. 31 

lour. A fmall protuberance in lieu of 
a back Toe. Weight 7 oz. Length 
ly inches. 

2. Canus. Connnon Gull., Alezu^ or Sea Mali, 

Bill yellow. Back grey. The reft 
wiiite. Weight 12 oz. Length 17 

3. Nasvlus. BrcWn and TVIoite Gull., Wagel, or 

Dung Hunter. Bill and Quills black. 
Tail black and white. The reft of the 
plumage a mixture of afli-colour, white 
and brown. Weight 32 oz. Length 
23 inches. 

>.4 Winter Mew. Irides hazel. Bill 

flender, whitifii towards the bafe, black 
at the end. Back grey. Coverts of 
the Wings pale brown. Firft Qiiiil 
black. A black bar acrofs the Tail. 
The reft white ; above fpotted v/ith 
brown. Weight 15 oz. Length ib* 

5. Marin us. Great Black and White Gull. Bill 

and Irides yellow ; a red fpot, with a 
black center in the lower mandible. 
Back and Wings black ; all the reft 
white. Weight fib. Length 29 inches. 

6. Fufcus. Herring Gull. Irides and Bill yel- 

low ; an orange fpot on the lower 
mandible. Back afti-colour. Quills 
black. The reft white. Legs pale red. 
Weight 30 oz. Length 23 inches. 

7. Ridibundus. Pe-Mt Gull, Black- cap or Sea 

Crow. Bill and legs red. Head, Throat, 



and tips of the Wings black. Back 
and Wings afh-colour. The reft white. 
Its note a hoarfe laugh. Weight lO 
oz. Length 15 inches. Staffer djhire* 

8. Parafiticus. Artie Gull. Crown and legs black. 

Above brown. Beneath white. Tail 
of 12 feathers, 2 middle ones 4 inches 
longer than the reft. Galway. 

9. Catara6les. Skua. Cere black. Bill and 

Claws very ftrong and hooked. Above 
brown. Beneath afti-colour and red. 
A bird of prey. 

10 Black-toed Gull. Bill black, Cere 

brown. Legs lead-colour. Above black 
and white. Beneath white and brown. 
Tail 12 black feathers tipt with white; 
2 middle ones longer. Weight 12 oz. 
Length 15 inches. 

STERNA. Bill ftraight, flender, pointed. 
Noftrils narrov/, on the bafe of the 
Bill. Tail forked. Feet webbed. Mi- 

1. Hirundo. Greater Tern, or Sea Swallow. Bill 

and Feet red. Crown, and tip of the 
Bill, black. Above grey. Beneath 
white. Weight 4 oz. Length 14 

2. Minuta. Lefs Tern. Bill and Legs yellow. 

Tip of the Bill and Crown black. A 
black line between the Eyes and Bill. 
Above grey. Beneath white of exqui- 



fite glofs and foftnefs. Tail white. 
Weight 2 oz. Length 8 -i inches. 

3. Feflipes. Black Tern. Head and under fide 
of the body black. Above dark .ifli 
colour. Leo-s red. Lefs than the for- 
mer. Frequents frelh water. 


Bill roundifh. Tongue entire, flefliy. 
Thighs naked. Toes divided. 

ARDEA. Bill ftrait, long, acute. Toes 4. 

I. Cinerea. Common Heron. Bill greenifh above, 
yellowifh beneath, black at the end. 

• - ■ A fhort pendent creft. Above grey. 
Beneath white, with longitudinal fpots. 
A greenifh naked fkin between the 
Bill and the Eyes. Irides yellow. 
Quills black. Legs greenifh. 

J». Major. Crejled Heron. A long pendent black 
creft. Forehead and Crown white. 
Feathers of the fore part of the Neck 
long and loofe. Otherwife like the 
former j but not fo frequent. 

3. Stellaris. Bittern. Bill a little arched. Ir- 
ides yellow. Crown black. A fhort 
pendent Creft. A black fpot at each 
corner of the Mouth. Plumage pale 
dull yellow, fpotted with black. Fea- 
thers of the breaft Ions: and loofe. 
Legs greenifh. Hind claw very long. 

D 4. Alba. 


4. Alba. Great white Heron. Entirely white,- 

Legs black. Weight 40 oz. Length 
40 inches. Migrates. 

5. Minuta. Little Bittern. Bill green-yellow. 

Head, Back, Quills, Tail greenifti- 
black. Fore part of the Neck, Breaft, 
and Thighs bufF. Belly white. Thighs 
feathered to the knees. Length 15 
inches. Shot near Shrew/bury. 

SCOLOPAX. Bill very.long, (lender, ob- 

Jrched Bills. 

1. Arquata. Curlew. Bill 6 inches long. Plu- 

mage white fpotted with black. Quills 
black. Tail white barred with black. 
Legs bluifli grey. Weight from 22 to 
37 oz. 

2. Phaeopus. Whimhrel. Bill not quite 3 inches 

long. Above brown fpotted with black. 
Beneath white. Tail barred with black. 
Legs dull green. Weight not exceed- 
ing 12 oz. 

Strait Bills. 

3. Rufticola. Woodcock. Bill 3 inches long. 

Above variegated with red -brovi^n, black 
and grey. Beneath dirty white, with 
tranfverfe dark lines. Chin yellow. 
Weight 12 oz. Length 14 inches. 

if. Gallinago. Snipe. Bill 3 inches. Four black 
and 3 red longitudinal lines on the 
head. Chin, Breaft, and Belly white. 


B'l R D S. G R A L L /Ev ^^ 

. Neck red and brown. Scapulars black 

and yellow. Tail tipt with white. 
Legs pale green. Weight 4 oz. 
Length 12 inches. 

5, Gallinula. Jackfnipe, Bill 1 4- inch. Crown 

black. Rump fhining purple. Over 
each eye a yellow ftroke. Weight 
fcarce 2 oz. Length 9 inches. 

6. Glottis. Greeyiflmnk. Bill 2 4 inches ; upper 

Mandible black. Above afli colour. 
Beneath white. Tail white, undulated 
with duflcy bars. Legs greenifh and 
bare above the knees. Weis^ht 6 oz. 
Length 14 inches. 

•7 Spotted Rcdjhank. Above afh co- 
lour, the Head ftreaked with black, the 
Back fpotted with white. Beneath 
white. Legs red. Size of the laft. 

8. Calidris. Redjhank. Bill 2 inches, red at 
the bafe, black at the end. Head, 
back of the Neck and Scapulars dufky 
afh colour fpotted with black. Back 
and underfide of the body white, fpotted 
with black. Tail barred with black 
and white. Legs orange. Weight 5 i 
oz. Length 12 inches. 

jQ. Limofa. Lefs Godivit. Bill a little curved 
upwards, redifli at the bafe. Head 
olive brown. Neck afh colour. Back 
brown. A white crefcent on the tail, 
which is fomewhat forked. Legs 

D 2 10. La- 

3^ BIRDS. G R A L L /E.' 

10. Laponica. Red Godwlt. Bill a little curved 

upwards, yellow at the bafe, black at 
the point. Plumage red-brown, ftreaked 
with black. Wino:s and Tail black 
and white. Legs black. 

11. ^gocephala. Godwlt^ or Yarwhelp. Bill 

ftrait, 4 inches long, purple tipt with 
black. A broad white ftroke from the 
bill to the eye. Above red-brown. Be- 
neath white. Qiiills black. Tail barred 
■with black and white. Middle and 
exterior toe connefted by a membrane. 
Weight 12 oz. Length i6 inches. 

TRINGA. Bill roundifh, ftrait, about 
the length of the head. Noftrils nar- 
row. Toes 4. 

I. Pugnax. Ruff. Feathers of the Neck re- 
markably long. Coverts of the Wings 
and 4 exteriors of the Tail brown. 
Four middle feathers of the Tail barred 
with black and brown. Legs yellow. 
Weight 5 or 6 oz. 

Female, Reeve. Brown fpotted with 
white or afli colour. No rufF. 
Legs red. Thefe birds difFer 
remarkably in their colours. 

%. Vanellus. Lapwings or Tezuit. Bill, Crown, 
Creft, Throat black. A black line 
under each Eye. Back purplifli green. 
Wings and Tail black and white. Legs 
red. Weight 8 oz. Length i3.inchcs. 

3. Mo- 


3. Morinella. Turnjlone. Bill ftrong, a little 
., prominent above, whitifli at the bafe, 

black at the end. Forehead and Throat 
afli colour. Neck and Back brown. 
Rump white with a triangular black 
fpot. Tail black and white. Legs 
orange. Size of a Thrufii. Shrofijlnrc, 
Cormvally IP'ales, Norfolk. 

4. Macularia. Spotted Sandpiper. Bill red, black 

at the point. Above olive brown, 
■with black fpots. Beneath white with 
dark fpots. Above each Eye a white 
line. Quills black, the lefs tipt with 
white. Middle of the tail brown, fides 
white and fpotted. Legs pale dull red. 
Weight c oz. Length 10 inches. 

5 Black /potted Sandpiper. Bill fhort, 

obtufe,' blackifli. Noftrils black. Ir- 
ides yellow. Head and under fide of 
the body white fpotted with black and 
brown. Above tinged with brown. 
Quills black with a white crofs line. 
Two middle feathers of the Tail black, 
the reft- white. Legs long and brown. 

6. Lobata. Grey /ollop-toed Sandpiper. Bill 

black with a double groove. Head and 
under part of the Body white. Above 
grey. Legs lead colour. Toes finned, 
fcoUoped, ferrated. Weight 1 o/.. 

7. Hypcrborea. Red fcoUop-tocd Sandpiper. Bill 

ftrait, Hendcr, round, pointed, black. 

Crown black-red. Neck red. Above 

• D 3 brown, 

g8 BIRDS. G R A L L ^. 

brown, with yellow fpots. Beneath 
white. Wings long, tipt with white. 
Toes fcolloped like the laft. Size of 
a Blackbird. Torkjhire. 

8. Alpina. Dunlin. Bill, Legs, Feet black. 

Above red-brown. Beneath white with 
black fpots. Wings afli colour. Back 
Toe very fhort. Length 8 inches. 

9. Ocrophus. Green Sandpiper. Head brown- 

afh colour. Above green with white 
fpots. Belly, Rump, Tail white, with 
a few black fpots. Bill and Legs 
greenifli lead colour. Length 8 ^ inches. 
Frequents lakes and rivers, 

10. Hypoleucos. Sandpiper. Bill, Head, Quills 

brown. Neck dark afti colour. Back 
brown mixt with green, with tranf- 
verfe dufky lines. Longitudinal black 
lines on the Head. A white ftroke 
above each Eye. Beneath white. Legs 
gi'eenifti. Weight 2 oz. On lakes 
and rivers. 

11. Canutus. Knot. Bill deep a{h colour. Un- 

der fide of the Body, edges of the 
Wing-coverts, and fides of the Tail 
white. The reft brown. Tail-coverts 
fpotted with white. Tail afh colour. 
Legs bluifti grey. Toes divided to the 
bottom. Length 9 inches. On our 
coaft in Winter. 

12 JJh coloured Sandpiper. Breaft and 

Belly white. The reft afti colour, the 
Head fpotted with black, the Tail 
barred, and the Back curved with black 



and white. Legs black-green. Toes 
bordered with a fcoUoped membrane. 
In flocks on the JVelJh coaft in Winter. 

13. Cinclus. Purre, or Stint. Bill flender, 
black. Head, Neck, Back, Tail afli 
colour. Coverts dark brown. Breaft, 
Belly, and lower part of the Quills 
white. Legsgreenifh. Length 7 inches. 
In flocks on our coafts in Winter. 

CHARADRIUS. Bill ftrait, roundifli, 
obtufe. Noftrils narrow. Toes 3. 

1. Hiaticula. Sea Lark. Bill orange tipt with 

black. Forehead, Breaft, Belly white. 
Cheeks black. A black line from the 
bill to each eye ; another from one eye 
to the other. Crown of the Head 
brown. A black and a white Collar. 
Back and Tail brown. Legs yellow. 
Weight 2 oz. Length 7.1 inches. On 
our (hores in Summer. 

2. Morinellus. Dottrel. Bill, Head, fhafts of 

the Quills, Belly, tip of the Tail, 
Legs black. A broad white line above 
the Eyes. Cheeks, Throat, Thighs 
white. Breaft and fides orange. The 
reft olive. Weight 4 oz. Migrates. 

3. Pluvialis. Green Plover. Bill, Head, Back, 

Legs black. Breaft brown. Belly 
white. Upper part of the body and 
breaft fpotted with green. Tail barred 
with black, green, and brown. Weight 
9 oz. Length II inches. Migrates. 

D 4 4. Ca- 


4. Calidris. Sanderllng, Bill and Legs black. 

Head and back of the Neck a(h colour, 
with long black fpots. Back brownifh 
grey. Beneath white. Tail of il 
pointed feathers afli colour. Coaft of 

5. Oedicnemus. Norfolk Plover. A yellowifh 

green bare fpace between the Eyes, 
Irides and Legs yellow. Above black. 
Beneath white. Knees fwollen. Toes 
bordered by a membrane. Weigbt 
18 oz, 

6. Himantopus. Long Legged Plover. Bill black 2 

inches long. Legs red, very long and 
Hender. Wings extend beyond the 
Tail. Forehead, Breaft, Belly, Tail 
white. Crown, Back, Wings black, 

RECURVIROSTRA. Bill curved up- 
wards, flexible at the apex. Three Toes, 

I. Avocetta. Jvofetta. Bill 34 inches long. 
Above black and white. Beneath 
white. Legs blue and very long. 
Thighs najced. Frequent on pur Eaftern 

H^MATOPUS. Bill comprcfTed, obtufe. 
Toes 3, the middle conne£ted to the 
exterior as far as the firtt joint. 

r. Oftralegus. Sea Pie. Bill 3 inches, orange, 
Ijides crimfon. Tongue very fhort. 



Head, Neck, Shoulders black. Wings 
and Tail black and white. Beneath 
white. Legs pale red. Weight 16 
oz. Length 1 7 inches. Frequent on 
the coaft. 

FULICA. Bill (hort, thick, convex. Fore- 
head bare. Toes 4, finned. On Lakes 
and Rivers. 

|. Atra. Coot. A thick, callous, red mem- 
brane above the Bill. Bill and Legs 
olive ; Garter yellow. Belly afh co- 
lour. Margin of the Wings white. 
The reft black or very dark afh colour. 
Weight 26 oz. Toes fcolloped. 

2. Aterima. Greater Coot. Callus white. Gar- 

ter red. Darker coloured and larger 
than the laft. 

3. Chloropus. Water Hen. Callus, Irides, upper 

part of the Bill and Garters red. Head, 
Neck, Breaft black. Belly deep afh 
colour. Margin of the Wings white. 
The refl glolTy olive brown. Fins of 
the Toes ftrait, narrow. Weight 15 
cz. Length 14 inches, 

RALLUS. Bill comprelTed, fharp. Noflriis 
oval. Toes 4. Body compreficd. 

J. Crex. Land Roil. Bill and Legs grey. 
Above black edged with light brown. 
Beneath white. Legs very long. 
Weight 7 oz. Frequent in Ireland and 


2. Aqua- 

42 BIRDS. G A L L I N iE; 

2. Aquaticus. JVater Rail. Bill flightly arched, 
flender, above black, beneath orange. 
Above black, the feathers edged with 
olive brown. Beneath afh colour. Bafe 
of the Wings white. Tail fhort. 
Legs redifh, and near the Tail. 
Weight 4^ oz. Length i2 inches. 

7. Porzana. Small fpotted Water Hen. Bill and Legs 
olive. Head brown fpotted with black. 
Neck deep olive fpotted with white. 
Back variegated with black, olive and 
white. Beneath afli colour and white. 
Weight 44 oz. Length 9 inches. 

OTIS. Bill ftrong and ^ little hooked. 
No back Toe. 

I. Tarda. Bujiard. On each fide the lower 
Mandible a tuft of long Feathers. 
Bill and Legs greyifh brown. Irides 
bright orange. Head and Neck a(h 
colour. Back and Tail barred with 
black and red-brown. Quills black. 
Beneath white. Weight 251b. Length 
4 feet. The Female is much lefs, and 
wants the long Feathers from the Bill. 


Bill convex : the upper Mandible arched. 
Toes connected by a membrane at the 
bottom. Tail-feathers more than 12. 



PHASIANUS. Cheeks naked, fmooth. 
Spurs on the legs. 

I. Colchicus. Pheafant. Bill horn colour. 
Cheek-membrane bright red. A tuft 
of black feathers near the Ears. Head 
and Neck tinged with rich green- pur- 
ple. Beneath brown. Tail of 18 Fea- 
thers, long and of various colours. 
A fharp fhort fpur. Weight 45 oz. 
Length 36 inches. The Pheafant, 
tho' lately introduced, now breeds fpon- 
taneoufly in this ifland. 

TETRAO. A bare fcarlet fpot above the 

Legs feathered to the Feet. 

1. Urogallus. Cock of the JVood^ or Mountain. 

Bill yellow. Above ftreaked with 
tranfverfe back and grey lines. Breafl 
green. Belly black, with a few white 
fpots. A white fpot on the Scapulae. 
Tall of 18 black feathers, with a few 
white fpots. Length 32 inches. Weight 
131b. Fema/e: he(s. Throat red. Belly 
orange. Tail brown barred with black. 
In the Highlands of Scotland. 

2. Tetrlx. Black Game, or Heath Cock. Plu- 

mage black. A white fpot on the 
Shoulders. Tail of 16 Feathers, fork- 
ed. Thighs and Legs dark brown. 
Weight near 41b. Length 22 inches. 
Female : Plumage mixt with red. 
Weight 2 lb. 

3. Lagopus.. 


3. Lagopus. Ptarmigan, or TVlnte Game. In 
Summer pale brown with dark fpots. 
In Winter white. Feathered to the 
claw. Tail of 16 Feathers, Weight 
14 oz. Length 16 inches. In the 
Highlands of Scotland. 

^ GrouSf Red Game, or A^oor Game. 

Bill black. Irides hazel. A white 
fpot on each fide the lower Mandible. 
Throat red. Head and Neck tawny 
red, mixt with black. Back red, with 
black fpots. Beneath purplifh brown, 
ftreaked with dark lines. Tail of 16 
Feathers. Thighs pale red. Legs 
feathered to the Claws. Weight 19 
oz. Length 15 inches. Female: Belly 
fpotted with white. Weight 15 oz. 

Legs Naked. 

5. Perdix. Partridge. Bill white. Plumage 

orange, black and brown. A femilu- 

nar mark on the Breaft. Tail of 18 

feathers. Weight 15 oz. Length 13 
inches. Female lefs. 

6. Coturnix. ^ail. Bill dufky. Head black. 

a yellowifli line from the Crown to the 
Back. Chin and Throat whitifh. 
Breaft pale orange fpotted with black. 
Back black and yellow. Tail of 12 
feathers black and red. Length 7 
inches. Migrates. 




Bill conic, pointed. Noftrils ovale, broad, 

COLUMBA. Bill ftrait, a little bent at 
the apex. Noftrils oblong, half covered 
by a foft tumid membrane. Tongue 

1. Oenas. Pigeon^ or Stock Dove. Plumage 

deep bluifh afti colour. Breaft tinged 
with purple-green. Two black bars 
, on the Wings, and one near the end 
of the Tail. Back white. All our 
tame Pigeons are varieties of this 

2. Palumbus. Ring Dove. Above bluifli afh 

colour. Breaft tinged with purple. 
Belly dirty white. On the back of the 
Neck a femicircular white line. Weig^ht 
20 oz. Length 18 inches. 

3. Turtur. Turtle Dove. Bill bluifti brown. 

Irides yellow. Crown and Back afh 
colour mixt with olive. On the fides 
of the Neck a black fpot edged with 
white. Wings brown. Breaft purple 
mixt with yellow. Belly white. Circle 
round the eyes, and feet red. Claws 
black. Length 12 inches. Bucks^ 
Glouceji. Shropjlj. Weji of Engl 

ALAUDA. Bill fubulate. Tongue bifid. 
The hind Claw not much bent, and 
longer than the Toe. 

I. Ar- 

46 B I R D Sj PAS S E R i^ Si 

I. Arvenfis. Sky Lark, tower Mandible, fpot 
above the Eyes, foles of the Feet and 
under fide of the Body yellow. Head 
and Breaft fpotted with black. Ex- 
terior web of the Quills edged with 
white. Weight i i. oz. Length 7 
inches. Sings flying. 

7.. Pratenfis. Tit Lark. Bill, fpots on the 
Head, Breaft and Back black. Above 
greenifh brown. Breaft yellow. Throat 
and Belly white. Sides of the Tail 
white. Length 54- inches. 

2 Lefs Field Lark. Head and back 

of the Neck pale brown with dark lines. 
Back and Rump dirty green. Coverts 
of the Wings, firft Quill, and fides of 
the Tail white. Hind Claw fhorter. 
Legs brown. Larger than the laft. 

4 Red Lark. Above brown. Be- 
neath red-brown with dark fpots. Sides 
of the Tail white. A dark line acrofs 
the Eyes, and above that a yellowifh 
one. The third Quill long. Back 
Claw not very long. Size of the laft. 

2 The lefs Crejied Lark. Above brown. 

Beneath whitifti. Creft long. Feet 
red. Lefs than the Sky Lark. Tork- 

6. Arborea. Wood Lark. A white ring round the 
Head. Crown, Throat and Back fpott- 
ed with black. Breaft tinged with red. 
Belly white. Tail black edged with 


BIRDS. P A S S 1 R E S* 47- 

white. Lefs than the Sky Lark. Sings 

j, Trivialis. Grafihopper Lark. Above green- 
brown fpotted with black. Beneath 
yellow-white. Tail of 12 Feathers. 
Jong and rounded. Legswhitifh. Lefs 
than the Tit Lark. Shropjhire. 

%,»,,. . . Wilhw Lark. Above yellow-brown, 
with dark fpots. Beneath yellow- white. 
Tail dark brown. 

STURNUS. Bill fl-rait, fubulate, and 
fomewhat angular. 

i., Vulgaris. Stare or Starling. Bill yellow, 
deprefled j the bafe of the lower Man- 
dible furrowed on each fide. A pro- 
minent margin round the Noftrils, 
Tongue bifid, horny, Irides hazel. 
Plumage black tinged with green-pur- 
ple ; tips x)f the Feathers yellowifti. 
Legs and Feet redifh black, 

2. Cinclus. Water Ouzel. Bill comprefTed, 
black. Eyelids white. Above brown. 
Throat and breaft white. Belly red- 
brown. Tail black. Legs bluifti be- 
fore j behind black. Weight 2^ oz. 
Length 7 inches. 

TURDUS. Bill roundifh, fharp-edged : 
upper Mandible notched, and bent at 
the apex. Noftrils naked, and half 
covered by a membrane. 

4 I. Vif- 


1. Vifcivorus. Mijpl Bird. Above brown-grey. 
Beneath yellow-white, with dark fpots. 
Irides hazel. Tail of 12 Feathers^ 
exteriors tipt with white. Inner Co- 
verts of the Wings white. Weight 
5 oz. Length 11 inches. Our largeft 
linging bird. 

2» Pilaris. Fieldfare. Bill yellowifh tipt with 
black. Head and Rump a(h colour. 
Back deep brown. Tail and Legs 
black. Beneath white. Breaft redifli 
with dark fpots. Weight 14 oz. Length 
id inches. Migrates. 

3. Iliacus. Redwing. Above brown-grey. Be- 

neath whitifh with brown fpots. Sides 
and under Coverts of the Wings red- 
yellow. A yellow-white line athwart 
the Eyes. Weight 2i oz. 

4. Muficus. Throjlle. Above brown-grey. Be- 

neath white with black fpots. Throat 
and Breaft redifh. Inner Coverts of 
the Wings yellow. Weight 3 oz. 
Length 9 inches. 

5. Rofeus. Rofe coloured Ouxel. Bill at the bafe 

redifh, at the point black. A long 
pendent Creft. Head, Crcft, Neck, 
Wings, Tail black, tinged with green- 
purple. Breaft, Belly, Back rofe co- 
lour with black fpots. Legs dirty 
orange. Middlefex, Norfolk. 

6. Merula. Blackbird. Plumage black. Bill 

and edges of the Eyelids yellow. 


7. Tor- 


^. Torquatus. Ring Ouzel. Plumage black- 
brown, the edges of the feathers of a 
lighter colour, A white Crefcent on 
the Breafl-. Length 11 inches. 

AMPELIS. Bill flrait, convex ; upper 
mandible fomewhat curved, and notch- 
ed. Tongue cartilaginous, bifid. 

I. Garrulus. Chatterer. A long Crcft. Plumage 
a{h colour, red, black, purple, yellow, 
■white, brown. Red, horny, appendages 
from the tips of 7 of the fmall Quills, 
Length 8 inches. Rare in this Ifiand. 

L-OXIA. Bill fhort, thick. 

1. Curviroftra. Crofsbill. Upper Mandible 

curved downward, the under upwards 
croffing each other. Male red. Fe- 
male green, both varying with the fea- 
fons. Shropjhire. Migrates^ 

2. Coccothrauftes. Grofsbeak, or Hawfinch. Bill, 

under fide of the Body, and Legs 
redifli. Head chefnut. Chin and 
Quills black. The ends of the middle 
Quills curved outwards. A black line 
from the Bill to the Eyes. Back 
brown. Weight 2 oz. Length 7 
inches. Shropjhire. Migrates. 

3. Pyrrhula. Bulfinch. Bill, Grown, Coverts 

of the Wings, Tail black. Back of 
the Neck and Back igrey. Covrrs of 
the Tail and Vent white. Cheeks, 
Breaft, Belly crimfon. A white line 
E acrofs 

50 BIRDS. P A S S E R E S« 

acrofs the Wings. The Bread and 
Belly of the Female dirty bufF colour. 

4. Chloris. Greenfinch. Plumage yellow-green. 
Exterior webs of the outmoft feathers 
of the Tail yellow. Lower Belly 
white. Length 5 1- inches. 

EMBERIZA. Bill conic, angular on each 
fide ; a hard knob within the upper 


1. Nivalis. Greater Brambling. Bill yellow tipt 

with black. Head and Neck tawny. 
Back and Legs black. Beneath yel- 
low-white. Rump yellow. Tail of 
12 feathers, exteriors white. Coverts 
of the Wings white. Weight i oz. 
Length 7 inches. Migrates. 

2. Miliaria. Bunting. Above olive-brown, with 

black fpots. Beneath yellow-white. 
Edges of the Wings and Legs yellow. 
Sides of the Tail white. Length 7 -^ 

3. Citrinella. Yellow-hammer. Crown, Chin, 

Throat, Belly yellow. Back of the 
Neck, lefs Wing-Coverts, part of the 
Quills, and part of the Tail green. 
Breaft orange. Rump brown-red. 
Length 6 inches. 

4. Schoeniclus. Reed Sparrow. Above black, 

edged with red. Beneath white. A 
white circle round the head of the 
Male. Length near 6 inches. 



FRINGILLA. Bills ftrong, conic, (Irait, 

1. Coelebs. Chaffinch. Bill, Crown, back and 

fides of the Neck, bluifh. Forehead, 
Wings, Tail black. Three white lines 
acrofs the Wings. Above the Eyes, 
Cheeks, Throat red. Belly red'difti 
white. Female wants the red feathers. 

2. Montifringilla. Brambling, or Mount ainjinch. 

Back and Crown Islack edo-ed with 
brown. Chin, Throat, Breaft, and 
lefs Wing-Coverts orange; inner Co- 
verts yellow. Quills ed^'ged with yel- 
low. Belly whitifh. Length 6 inches. 

3. Carduelis. Goldfinch. Bill, Cheeks, back of 

the Head, Belly, tips of the Wings, 
fpots on the Tail, Legs, white. Tip 
of the Bill, line from that to the Eyes, 
Crown, Win^s, Tail black. Circle 
round the BHl red. Breaft, Back, 
Rump, pale brown. Middle of the 
Wings yellow. 

4. Splnus. Sijkin., or Aberdavine. Bill white 

tipt with black. Head black. Belly 
white. The reft of the body yellow- 
green. Two middle feathers of the 
Tail black, the reft yellow with black 
tips. Length near 5 inches. Migrates. 

5. Cannabtna. Greater red-headed Linnet., or 

Redpole. Bill blackifh, bafe of the 

under Mandible whitifh. Head and 

Neck afh colour, on the Forehead a 

E 2 dark 


dark red fpot. Back, Scapulars and 
Coverts red-brown. Quills black, with 
a white bar. Breaft pale red. Sides 
yellow. Belly and fides of the Tail 
white. Length 5 inches. On the Sea 
coafts, and fometimes near London. 

6. Linaria. Lefs red-headed Linnet. ^[^^If 
much like the former J but conhderably 


J Mountain Linnet or Tivite. Bill yel- 

low. A brown fpot above and below 
each eye. Head afti colour and black. 
Back brown and black. Breaft black 
and white. Rump tawny red. Wings 
and Tail edged with white. Rather 
lefs and more taper than the common 

8. ...... Linnet. Head black and afti colour. 

Back black and brown. Throat, two 
white lines with a brown one in the 
middle. Breaft deep red. Belly white. 
Wings black, brown and white. Tail 
brown, edged with white. Length 5 i 

Q. Domeftica. Sparrow. Bill, fpot under each 
Eye, Chin, under fide of the Neck, 
and Quills, black. Crown and fides 
of the head brown afli colour. Cheeks 
and Belly white. Back black and red. 

ro. Montana. Mountain Sparrow, or iVhite Cap. 
Bill, fpot on the Throat, and under 
each Ear, black. Under the Eyes, 
back of the Neck, and under fide of 



the Body white. Back brown and 
black. Legs pale red. 

MUSCICAPA. Bill triangular, the upper 
Mandible notched ; broad at the bale ; 
furrounded with fhort briftles. 

J. Grifola. Fly-catcher. Bill, Legs, Feet black. 
Above brownifh grey. Beneath white. 
Quills edged with yellow. Throat 
and Sides tinged with red. Mouth 
yellow. Length 54 inches. 

MOTACILLA. Billftrait,flender. Tongue 

1. Lufcinia. Nightingale. Head and Back tawny 

olive. Tail tawny red. Beneath pale 
afti colour; lower Belly white. Iridcs 
hazel. Eyes large. Legs deep afli 
colour. Weight i oz. Length 7 

2. Modularis. Hedge Sparrow. Head deep brown 

and afh colour. Back and Tail blackifh, 
fome of the feathers edged with brown. 
Rump brown tinged with green. 
Throat and Breaft bluifh afli colour. 
Belly dirty white. Legs red ifti. Weight 
not quite i oz. 

3. Hippolais. Petty-chaps. Above grcenifli dark 

afh colour. Belly white. Breaft yel- 
lowifh. Mouth red. Legs lead colour. 
Quills edged with green. Length 6 

E 3 4. Sylvia. 

54 BIRDS. P A S S E R E S. 

4. Sylvia. White Throat. Above brown afli 

colour. Beneath white. Breaft and 
Belly tinged with red. Tail edged 
with white. Legs tawny brown. 
Mouth yellow. Length 6 inches. 

5. Alba. IVI^ite TVaterwagtail. Bill, Mouth, 

Head, Neck, Back, Tail, Legs black. 
Breaft, Belly and fides of the Tail 
white. Tail and back Claw very long. 
Weight 6 drams. Length 8 inches. 

6. Flava. Yellow Waterwagtail. Above olive 

green. Beneath yellow. A yellow 
line above the Eyes. Tail black edged 
with white. Throat fpotted with 

7 Grey TVaterwagtail. Crown, Neck, 

Back afh colour. Throat black. A 
white line above and below the Eyes. 
Runp, Breaft, and Belly yellow. Tail 
like the two former, but longer. 

8. Oenanthe. Wheat Ear. A black and a 
white line acrofs the Face, Head and 
Back a{b colour tinged with red. Be- 
neath yellowifli white. Bill, Mouth, 
Quills, and upper half of the Tail 
black ; the other half and Rump white. 
Size of a Sparrow. Migrates. 

Q. Rubetra. Whinchat. Above red-brown with 

black fpots. Beneath reddifti yellow. 

. A while Itroke above the Eyes, and a 

broad black one under it. Two 

white fpots on the Wings. Tail black 



and white. Bill, Mouth and Legs 
black. Weight i oz. 

10. Rubicola. Stone Chatter. Bill, Mouth, 
Head, Neck, Back, Tail, Legs black. 
Sides of the Throat and Rump white. 
Beneath reddifh yellow. White fpots 
on the Wings. Size of a Linnet. 

II Coldfinch. Bill, Head, Back, firft 

Quills, middle of the Tail, Legs black. 
Forehead, fpots on the Coverts and 
fides of the Tail, alfo the exterior 
webs of fome of the Quills, and all 
the undcrfide of the body white. Lefs 
than the Hedge Sparrow. 

12. Atricapilla. Blackcap. Bill, and Crown 

black. Neck afh colour. Back green. 
Beneath pale afh colour. Quills and 
Tail edged with green. Legs lead co- 
lour. Weight A oz. 

13. Phoenicurus. Redjiart. Bill, Cheeks, Throat, 

Legs black. Forehead white. Crown, 
Neck, Back blue grey. Breaft, Rump, 
Tail red. Wings and 2 middle fea- 
thers of the Tail brown. Weight 6 
drams. Length 5 inches. 

14. Rubecula. Redbreajl. Bill and Legs blackifli. 

Forehead, Chin, Throat, and Bread 
yellow-red. Above green-afh colour. 
Belly white. Weight ~ oz. Length 
6 inches. 

15. Troglodytes. JVren. Above red-brown, 

with tranfverfe black lines. Beneath 

yellowifh white. Mouth yellow. A 

F 4. white 



white ftroke above the Eyes. Weight 
3 drams. Length 4^ inches. 

16. Regulus. Golden-crejied Wren. Crown fear- 

let ; a yellow line on each fide. Above 
dark green. Beneath white with a 
green tinge. Legs yellow. Weight 
70 grains. Length 4 inches. 

17. Trochilus. TVdlcw Wren. Above green-afh 

colour. Wings and Tail brov/n, edged 
with green. Beneath yellowifh white. 
A yellowifh line above the Eyes. Mouth 
yellov/. Weight 2 drams. Length 5 

PARUS. Bill, fhort, ftrong, entire, briftles 
at the bafe. 'I'ongue blunt, with brillles 
at the end. 

J. Major. Great Titmoiije. Bill, Head, Throat, 
black. Back green. Beneath gieen- 
yellow, with a black line in the mid- 
dle. Rump bluifli. Qj^iills tipt with 
blue and white. Tail edged with 
white. Legs lead colour. Weight 
fcarce i cz. Length 6 inches. 

2. Coer ulcus. Blue Titmouse. Crown, Wings, 

Tail blue. Forehead, Cheeks white. 
Back yellow-green. Beneath yellow. 
A white bar scrofs the Wings. Legs 
lead colour. Weight 3{- drams. Length 
5 inches. 

3. Ater. Colemoiife. Bill, Head black, a white 

fpot on the hind part of the latter. 
Above green grey. Beneath white. 



Wing-coverts tipt with white. Legs 
bluilh. Weight 2 drams. Length 
near 5 inches. 

4. Paluftris. Marjh Titmoufe. Head black. 

Cheeks white. Above greenifli. Be- 
neath white. Legs lead colour. Weight 
above 3 drams. 

5. Caudatus. Long-tailed Titmoufe. Bill black, 

thick, and convex. Crown white. 
Coverts of the Wings black. Tail 
black and white and remarkably long. 

6. Biarmicus. Leaji Butcher Bird, or bearded 

Titmoufe. Bill (hort, ftrong, convex, 
yellow. Head grey. A black tuft be- 
neath each iLye. Plumage red-yellow. 
Tail very long. Legs black. 

HIRUNDO. Bill fhort, flender, a little 
curved, deprefled at the bafe, Adouth 
very wide. Legs fmall. Tail forked. 

1. Ruftica. Swallow. Above purplifh black. 

Beneath reddifh white. A red fpot on 
the Forehead and under the Chin. 
Length 7 inches. Mouth black. 

2. Urbica. Martin. Head and Back purple- 

black. Breaft, Belly, Rump white. 
Feet covered with white down. Mouth 
yellow. Length 6 inches. 

3. Riparia. Sand Martin. Above moufe colour. 

Beneath white. Feet black. A moufe 
coloured ring round the neck. Length 
5 inches. 

4. Apus. 

58 BIRDS. P A S S E R E S, 

4. Apus. Black Afariitty or Swift. Black, ex- 
cept a white fpot on the Chin. All 
the Toes ftand forward. Weight not 
quite I oz. Length near 8 inches. 

CAPRIMULGUS. Bill fhort, a little 
hooked, with briftles round the bafe. 
Mouth very wide. Legs feathered be- 
low the knees. Tail roundifh. 

I. Europaeus. Goatfucker, Plumage black, white, 
brown, and afh colour intermixed. 
Mouth purple. Irides hazel. Weight 
2^ oz. Length 10 inches. 




Lungs arbitrary. Heart with one ventricle. 
Penis double. 


Breathe through the Mouth. Feet 4. 

RAN A. No Tail. Forefeet, 4 toes dif- 
united. Hindfeet, 6 toes webbed. 

1. Bufo. Toad. Back broad, black befet with 

tubercles. Belly fwollen, yellow with 
black fpots. Crawls. 

2. Temporaria. Frog. Lefs than the Toad. 

Back fmooth. Margin of the upper '^ 
jaw white. Leaps. 


1. Agilis. Common Ltzzard, or Sivift. Tail 

round, fcaly. Five Toes and Nails on 
each Foot. Belly black, fpottcd. 

Greefi Lizzard, a variety. 

2. Vulgaris. Commoti Eft. Pale livid colour. 

A broun line on each fide the Head, 



continued along the back. Forefeet 4 
Toes ; Hindfeet 5, without Nails. 
Pet. cent. 2. II 6. 

^. Paluftris, IVater E/t, or Newt. Length 3 to 
4 inches. Above black-brown. Be- 
neath deep yelluw, fpotted. Tail com- 
preft. Feet like the former. Pet. ceiit. 
2. III. 


Breathe through the Mouth only. No Legs. 
No Fins. No Ears. 

COLUBER. Scuta on the Belly. Scales 
under the Tail. 

1. Berus. Viper, Afh coloured. A dark in- 

dented line along the middle of the 
Back. Belly tinged with purple, fpotted 
with black. ^("hroat pale. Irides 
orange; Pupil blSiek. Scuta 146. Scales 
39. Length about 18 inches. Pet* 
cent. 2. 103. 

2. Prefter. Black Viper. Entirely black. Tail 

very fhort. Scuta 153. Scales 32. 
Exceedingly poifonous. Pet. cent. 2. 

3. Natrix. Snake. Dark brown. Belly fpotted 

with white. Throat yellowifh white. 
Sides of the Head white with tranf- 
verfe black lines. Double row of 
Teeth. Tail {harp. Scuta 170. Scales 
60. Pet. cent. 1. ICI. 


A M I* H I B I A-. -N A N T E S. 6l 

ANGUIS. Scales under the Belly and 

I. Frngilis. Blind TVorm. Scales fmall, foft, 
compaft. Back yellovvffh afh colour. 
Beily black. Sides ftreaked with black 
and white. Tail long, obtufe.' Colour 


Breathe both through Gills or Spiracles, 
and through the Mouth. No "Scales. 
Rays of their Fins cartilaginous. 

PETROMYZON. Spiracles 7, on the 
-fide of the Neck. No G\(\% 'Aptr^ 
ture on the Top of -t-he I^ead. No 
peroral or dorfal Fins, 

1. Marinus. Zfl7?r^J^." Roxv^ bf Teeth 20. 

Mouth ro4f5. Two dorfal Fins. Back 
bkckifh bliie, fpotted. Belly white. 
A v/hite fpot on the top of the Head. 
Length about ^ feet. In the Sea and 
large rivers. 

2. Fluviatilis A fingle row of fmall 

teeth in the verge of the Mouth, 
befides thofe within, 7'he pofterior 
dorfal Fin arjgulated. Back bluifli 
black. Belly filver white. Length 
about I foot. In rivers only. 

• 3. Branchialis. Lamprey Eel. Back black-brown. 
Belly filver white. Pofterior dorfal 



Fin ftrait. Length 5 or 6 inches* 
Frequent in the IfiSy and Merfea, 

RAJA. Spiracles 5 on each fide of the under 
part of the Neck. Body flat. Mouth 
in the under part of the Head. 

1. Batis. ^kate^ or Flair e. Back afh colour 

with black fpots, fmooth. Belly white. 
A fingle row of Spines in the Tail. 
Length 2 or 3 feet. Weight fometimes 

2. Oxyrinchus. Sharp-nojed Skate. Back brown 

with 10 fharp tubercles along the mid- 
dle. Belly white. Nofe longer and 
Iharper than in any other of this genus. 
Weight 8 or 10 lb. Dale Hariv. 421. 

3. Fullonica. JVloite Horfe. Back yellowifli, 

fpotted with black and covered with 
Spines. One row of Spines on the 
Eyes, and two on the Tail. 

4. Paftinaca. Fire-fiaire. Back gibbous. Body 

fmooth. Nofe fliarp.. Irides yellow. 
Tail long, without Fin, terminated by 
a fliarp point. 

5. Clavata. Thorn-hack., or Maid. Back covered 

with Spines. A tranfverfe cartilage 
acrofs the Belly. Teeth tubercular. 
Tail, longer than the whole Body, 
with a fingle row of Spines. 

SQUALUS. Spiracles 5 on each fide the 
Neck. Body oblong and roundifh. 
Mouth in the anterior part of the Head. 
2 I. Acanthias 


1. Acanthias. Hound F'tjh, or Picked Dog. Head 

deprefled. Mouth beneath, femilunar. 
Teeth 3 rows. Foramina 2 between 
the Eyes. Lateral line ftrait. Skin 
rough. Back bluifh grey. Belly white. 
^ Eight or 9 white fpots on the Back. 
No anal Fin. Dorfal Fins fpinous. 
Ufual length 3 or 4 feet. Skin ufed 
by Cabinet-Makersj &c. 

2. Squatina. Afonk or Angel F'tjh. Skin rough. 

Teeth 3 rows. Mouth at the extremity 
of the Head. Perioral Fins large. 
Dorfal Fins near the Tail. No anal 

3. Galeus. Tope. Snout pellucid. Mouth be- 

neath, femicircular. Three rows of 
Iharp Teeth. Two dorfal, pedtoral, 
ventral and anal Fins. Noflrils near 
the Mouth. Foramina near the Eyes. 
Length 4 or 5 feet. 

4. Canicula. Cat Fijh^ or Bounce. Mouth be- 

neath. Teeth feveral rows, fmaJl, 
fharp, curving inwards. Snout obtufe. 
Back broad. Belly flattilh. Two doi-fal 
Fins. Ventral Fins large. Noftrils 
wide. Length about 3 feet. 

5. Catulus. Morgay^ or Rough Hound. Back 

irregularly fpotted. Belly white. Head 
punctured. Dorlld Fins near the Tail. 
Two anal Fins, alternate. Ventral 
Fins concreted. Body flender. 

6. Carcharias. Tf'lnte Sh::rk. Teeth 6 rows, 

ferrated. Back flat. Firft dorfal Fin 



near the middle of the Back. Peroral 
Fins large. No anal Fin. Tail di- 
vided J the upper part largeft. Skin 
very rough. Weight fometimes 1 000 lb. 

7. Muftelus. Smooth Houndfijh. Teeth numerous, 

obtufe. Back brown. Body roundifh, 
oblong. Dorfal Fins 2 ; anal i. Pec- 
toral Fins ftiort. Noftrils wide. 

8. Glaucus. Blue Shark. Nofe long, (harp, 
* deprefTed, and pun£lured. A triangu- 
lar foffule on ti>e Back. No Foramina 
near the Eyes. Mouth beneath. Teeth 
large, ferrated. Back dark blue. Belly 
filver white. Dorfal Fins 2. Perioral 
Fins long and pointed. Skin not very 
rough. Length 7 or 8 feet. Dale 
Hariv. 420. Borl. Cornw. 264. 

LOPHIUS. Spiracle i. behind the peroral 
Fins. Gills 3. Teeth numerous, flen- 
der, fliarp. 

I. Pifcatorius. Frog-fijh^ or Sea Devil. Head 
as large as the whole body. Mouth 
large. Eyes diftant ; Pupil divided by 
a tranfverfe line. No Noftrils. Se- 
veral long Spines on the Head. Body 
furroundcd with litde appendages. 

ACIPENSER. A fingle narrow Spiracle 
on each fide. Mouth beneath, retrac- 
tile, without Teeth. 

I. Sturio. Sturgeon. Skin rough. Nofe long, flat, 

{harp. Noftrils with a double aperture. 

2 Four 


Four appentJages from the under Jaw; 
Five rows of fpinous tubercles on the 
Back. One dorfal Fin. Tail bifid^ 
the upper fegment Ipngeft. 

TETRODON. Maxilla bony, apex bi- 
partite. Aperture narrow. No ven- 
tral Fins. 

I. Mola. Sunfjlj. No Scales. Ski-n hard and 
rough. Back blackifh. . Belly white. 
Tail truncated, with a fliort femicircu- 
lar Fin, joined to the dorfal and anal. 
Body comprefTed, appearing like the 
Head of a fi(h only. Dale Harw. 427. 
Borl. Cornw. 267. 

CYCLOPTERUS. Head obtufe. Teeth 
in tha Jaws. The ventral Fins infun- 

1. Lumpus. Lu?np FiJ})^ Sea OivU or Cockpaddle* 

Noflrils Angle. Back ridged, and be- 
fet with fharp tubercles. Colour, black 
niixt with pale red and white. Dorfal 
Fin long. Tail-Fin diftindl:. 

2. Liparis. Sea Snail. Body naked. Dorfal, 

anal and tail Fins united. A round 
fpot like the impreffion of a feal under 
the Throat. Length about 3 inches. 

SYGNANTHUS. Nofe roundifh, com- 

prefled. Mouth afmall round aperture at 

the extremity of the Head, and covered 

bv a kind of valve : Gills covered in 

F the 


the fame manner. Body long. No 
ventral Fins. 

1. Typhele. Needle Fijh. Body hexangular to 

the Anus. One dorfal Fin. Length 
5 inches. Diameter \ of an inch. 

2. Acus Body, to the Anus, hept- 

angular, and covered with 20 laminae, 
the Tail with 36. Length 4! inches. 

3. Ophidon. Sea Adder. Body cylindrical. Dor- 

fal Fin only. Colour greenifh duflcy 
grey. Length about 9 inches. 




Breathe by Gills, not arbitrarily.' Rays of their 
Pins bony. Hc.irt with one ventricle. No 
• external parts of Generation. 

1. A P O D E S. 

No ventral Fins. 

MUR.ENA. Body long, flender, cylindri- 
cal. Noftrils tubular. Apertures of 
the Gills near the pedtoral Fins. Eyes 
covered by a membrane. 

.1. Ophis. Spotted Sea Serpent. Body very fmall 
in proportion to its length. Mouth 
large. Teeth point inwards. Back 
fpotted with white. Belly and Fins 
whitifb. Tail naked, pointed. Length 
from 3 to 4 feet. 

2. Anguilla. Ed. The lower Maxilla longer 

than the upper. Dorfal, anal and tliil 
Fins united. Iris red. Lateral line 
afcends towards the Head. Vertebrae 
lib. IVill. 109. kaj. 37. 

3. Myrus. Fln-ta'iVd Sea Serpent. Back dark 

olive fpotted with white. Body con-:- 
^ 2 prclTed. 

68 FISHES. A P O D E S. 

prefled. Back Fin, furrounding the 
Tail as in the former, edged with 
black. Raj. 36. Hill. 237. 

4. Conger. Conger Eel. Fins like the laft fpe- 
cies. Lateral line ftrait, broad, white. 
Back dark olive. Belly white. Length 
from 5 to 8 feet, and thick as a man's 
thigh. IVill. 3. Raj. 37. 

ANARHICHAS. Foreteeth conic, di- 
verging. Tail Fin diftinil. 

I. Lupus, Sea Wolf. Head and Mouth large. 
Teeth long and numerous. Eyes pro- 
minent. Body thick, lubricous and 
variegated. Pedloral Fins large and 
roundifh. Dorfal Fin long but not 
high. Length 4 or 5 feet. Raj. 40. 
Will 130. 

AMMODYTES. Head compreffed, and 
narrower than the Body. Lower Man- 
dible {harp. Small Teeth in the fauces 
only. Gill-membrane has 7 rays. 
Body long and roundifh. Scales hardly 
vifible. Tail diftind. 

I. Tobianus. Sand Eel or Launce. Lateral line 
double. Anus nearer the Head than 
Tail. Dorfal Fin almoft from Head 
to Tail. Belly white, with 3 longitu- 
dinal lines. Dale Harw. 426. Will. 




Ventral Fins before the pefloral, 

CALLIONYMUS. Upper Lip duplicate. 
Eves near toeether. Apertures of the 
Gills in the Neck, No Scales. 

1 . Lyra, Lyre. The rays of the fix-ft dorfal Fin 

equal to the length of the Body. The 
upper Mandible longer than the under. 
Dale Hariv. 431. 

2. Dracunculus Upper mandible 

longeft, and hooked. Head large, 
comprefTed. Firft ray of the anterior 
dorfal Fin reaching to the Tail. Co- 
lour yellow, pearl colour and blue. 
Borl. Corn. 270. 

TRACHINUS. Head befet with Tuber- 
cles. Eyes near together. Two dor- 
fal Fins, the firft fhort. Anus near 
the Bread, 

i. Draco. Weaver. Under Maxilla longeft. 
Body comprefled. Dorfal and tail Fins 
ferrated. Lateral line ftrait, yellow. 
A ftrong Spine near the valve of the 
Gills. A deep fulcus on the hack. 
The antsKor dorfal Spines venomous. 

GADUS. Head fmooth. Rays of the GiU 
F 3 " raem- 


membrane 7. Body oblong. Pe£lora| 
Fins ending in a point. 

Tl^iih 3 dorfal Fins. _ J Q'lrrm or Beard from 
the lower faw. 

J. ^glelinus. Haddock. Upper Maxilla longefl". 
t-aieral line black. A brown fpot or^ 
the left fide. Back ridged. Belly 
white. Tail a little forked. 

•2. Morhua. Cod. Upper Maxilla longed. La- 
ter?.] line white. Colour variegated. 
Tail not forked, and its firft ray fpi- 

3. Lufcas. R'lh^ ox Blir.ds. The firft ray of the 

ventral Fins long. The lateral line 
dotted and curved. Body ccmprciled. 
Back olive. Beilv white. Raj. 54. 

mil. 169. 

4. Barbatus. TPljiting Pout. Body broad. Back 

Convex. Lateral linp much curved, 
'i'wo blackifti fpots at the roots of 
the pectoral Fins. Tail even. Anus 
near the Head. Punilures on each fide 
the lower Maxilla 7. Raj. 55. Will, 
cpp. 22. 

5. Minutus. Boer. Pack convex. Anus near 

the center. Punctures in the Maxilla 
9 on each fide. Length 14 inch. Raj, 
50 — 163. IVill. lyi. B or I. 26S. 

Jp^ith 3 dorfal Fins^ and no Cirrus. 

(i. Mcrlangus. IVlnling. Back convex, dufky j 
the reft of the Body white. Upper 
jaw longeft. Lateral line curved. 



Tall even. A black fpot on each fide 
near the root of the pectoral Fin. Raj. 
55. inil. 170. 

7. Carbonarius. Cole Fijh, ox Raxv Pollac. Co- 

lour black mixt with dufky yellow. 
Under Jaw longeft. Latersl line broad, 
white, ftrait. Size of the laft fpecies. 
R.aj. 54. 

8. Pollachius. Iflnt'ing Pollach. Back convex. 

Lower Jaw longeft. Lateral line broad, 
curved. Tail lunated. Body thick. 
Length about 12 inches. jR.?/. 53. Tf'ill. 
16 J. Dale Harw. 428. 

TVith 2 dorfal Fins. 

9. Merluccius. Hake. Body long and roundlfn. 

Under Jaw longed. Lateral line curved. 
< Head broad. Back brownifli giey. 

Belly white. Tail even. Length 
about 2 feet. Raj. 56. IVill. 174. 
Dak Harw. 429. 

10. Molva. Ling. L^pper Jaw longeft ; a cirrus 

from the lower. Head depreftcd. Mouth 
'*-" large. Back convex, black-brown. 

Body long, and roundifh. Tail a little 
rounded. Raj. 50. JVtll. 175. 

11. Lota. Eel Pout. Body long, flender and lu- 

bricous. Head broad,^ deprefled. Jaws 
equal. A cirrus from the lower Jaw. 
Tail nearly oval, Raj. 67, ^8, 3. 
Will. lis. 

12. Muflela. TVlnJile Fiji), Rocklingy or Sea 

Loach. A deep furrow in the anterior 

.,- part of the back. Tail rounded. Body 

F 4 flender. 

'^i r I S H E S. J U G U L A R E S. 

/lender. Length 8 inches. Raj. 67, 
164. fflll. 111. 

BLENNIUS. Head decllving from the 
eyes forward, and covered. Rays of 
the Gill-membrane 6. Rays of the 
ventral Fins 2. Anal Fin diftind. 

1. Galerita. Crejled Sea Lark. A triangular 

creft, red at the edges, between the 
Eyes. Body variegated. Dorfal Fin 
nearly from Head to Tail. l;Fill. 134 

2. Pholis. Sea Lark, Afulgramc, or Bukard. 

Upper Jaw longeft, and (harp. Colour 
variegated. Tail rounded. Length 6 
or 7 inches. DorfaJ Fin almoft from 
Head to Tail. Raj. 73. JVill. 133. 

3. Gunnellus. Butter F'ljh. Colour, brown, 

olive, green, white. Ten black fpots, 
with white edges, on each fide the 
dorfal Fin. Mouth large, curving up- 
wards, Eyes fmall and covered with 
a cuticle. Scales extreamly minute. 
Length 6 inches. ^^'.144. WilLw^. 
Pet. gaz. t. 51. 5. 

Ventral Fins under the peroral, 

GOBIUS. Eyes very near each other, 
with 2 fmall pundtures between. Rays 
of the Gill-membrane 4. Ventral Fins 
pnited, forming a kind of funnel. 

5 I. Niger, 

FISHES. T H O R A e I e f. 73 

-j> Niger. SeaGudgcon^oT Rock Fijh. Back brown, 
/ whitifh, yeliowifh, blue, green, olive, 

black. Tail, dorfal and anal Fins pale 
blue. Belly yellow. Rays of the po- 
ilcrior dorfal Fin 14. Eyes covered by 
one common membrane. JP^iil. 206. 
Raj. 16. Dale Harw. /^2(). 

COTTUS. Head broader than the Body 
and fpinous. Rays of the Gill-mem- 
brane 6. 

1. Cataph radius. Pogge. Body otSlangular, be- 

fet with hard tubercles ; 'Fail hexan- 
gular. Two cirri on the upper Jaw ; 
feveral on the lower. Anus near the 
center. " Tail rounded. JVill. 211. 
Raj, 'j'j. Dale Hariv. 430.' 

2. Scorpius. Father laJJjer. Upper Jaw longeft. 

Anterior ■ part of the Body deprelFed. 
Back brown. Sides flreaked tranfvcrfely 
with black. Rays of the firft dorfal 
Fin II. Of the fecond 16. Tail 
rounded. Raj. 145. JVill. 138. 

3. Gobio. Bull-head., or Miller's Thumb. Two 

Spines on the Head. No Scales on the 
Body. Back brown with black fpots. 
Belly whitilh. Fins yeliowifh. Rays 
of the firft dorfal Fin 7. Of the 2d. 
J 6 or 17. Length 4 or 5 inches. In 
rivers and rivulets. JVill. 137. Raj. 76, 

ZEUS. Head and Body remarkably com- 
prefied. Upper lip flieathed in a tranf- 
yerfe membrane. 

I. Faber. 


I. Faber. Doree. Head and Mouth large. Co- 
Jour olive tinged with j^old colour. A 
large black fpot on each fide. Lateral 
line much curved. Ten prickly rays 
on the anterior dorfal Fin, Spines on 
the Back and Belly. Tail rounded. 
Raj, 99. JVill. 294. 

PLEURONECTES. Both Eyes on one 
fide of the Head. Body cxtreanily 
comprefTcd. One fide white. 

Eyes on the right fide. 

1. Hippoglofilis. HoTihut in the South: Turhot 
' ' in the North. Body fmooth. Rays of 

the dorfal Fin 105. Raj. ■^2' ^^^^.99. 

2. Platcfla. Plaife. Body fraooth, with round 

red fpots on the upper fide. Six tu- 
bercles on the head. Rays of the dorfal 
Fin 76. Raj. 31. Will. 96. 

3. Fleflus. Flounder. Lateral line rough. Short 

fpines on the right fide of the Fins. 
Rays of the dorfal Fin 60, 61, or 62. 

,4. Limanda. Dab. Scales fringed with fhort 
fpines. Body broad. The upper fide 
fpotted with pale yellow. Short fpines 
at the roots of the dorfal and anal Fins. 
Lateral liiic curved. Rays of the dorfal 
Fin 78 or 79. Raj. 32. Will. 97. 

5. Solea. Soal. Body oblong. Scales rough. 
Upper Jaw longcit. Lateral line ftrait. 
Anus between the ventral Fins. Rays 
of the dorfal Fin 91. Raj. 33. Will. 



Eyes on the left fide. 

Rhombus. Pearl. Body fmooth, fcaly. Raj, 
31. IFili 95. 

Maximus, 'Turhot^ in the South : Bret in the 
North. Body rough, and not fcaly. 
Several rows of Teeth. Rays of the 
dorfal Fin 64; anal 48 ; peroral 11. 
Rf!j: 31. JVill. 95. 


€PARUS. Teeth like thofe of Quadrupeds. 
Lips duplicate. Valve of the Gills 
fcaly. Body comprefled. 

I. PaTus. 5"^^ Bream. Colour reddifh. At 
the roots of the dorfal and anal Fins 
the fkin forms a finus. Body broad. 
Back and Belly ridged. One dorfal 
Fin. mil. 312. Raf. 131. Charlt, 


LABRUS. Teeth fharp. Lipsfimple. Rays 
of the Gill-membrane 6 ; Valve fcaly. 
Rays of the Jorfal Fin alternately foft 
and ridged. 

I. Tinea. TVraffe^ or Old wife. Snout curving 
upwards. Tail circular. Body thick, 
comprelTcd. Scales large. Colour va- 
riegated with red, brown, yellow. Rays 
of the dorfal Fin 26. i2<7/. 136. Will. 


PERCA. Valve of the Gills fcaly, J"er- 
rated ; rays of the membrane 7. Fins 
fninous. Scales hard and rough. 

I. Flu- 

t]^ FISHES. T H R A C I C I. 

1. Fluviatilis. Pearch. Two dorfal Fins, the 

firft of 14, the fecond of 16 rays. 
Ventral Fins red. On each fide 6 
tranfverfe black lines, A black fpot at 
the end of the anterior dorfal Fin. In 
lakes and rivers. TVill.2^1. Ra'j.c^']. 

2. Labrax. Bajfe. Two dorfal Fins, the fe- 

cond 14 rays. Back blackifh. Belly 
filver white. Shaped like the. Salmon. 
Tail a little forked. Length 3 feet. 
Willi']!, RaJ.S^. 

3. Cernua. Rujff^' One dorfal Fin, of 27 rays, 

15 of which are fpinous. Head full of 
cavities. Colour brown-yellow, with 
black fpots. Length 5 inches. In 
ipiany of our rivers. fVill. 334. Raj, 


GASTEROSTEUS. Gill-membrane hath 
3 rays. Ventral Fins behind the pec- 
toral, but above the fternum. Dorfal 
Spines diftindt. 

1, Aculeata. Stickle-back. One dorfal Fin the 

whole length of the back, with 3 an- 
terior Spines. Head and Back blackifh ; 
the reft of the Body filvery. Body 
comprefi'ed. Eyes on the fides of the 
Head. Tail even. Frequent in our 
rivers. Raj. 145. Will. 341. 

2. Pungitius. Lefs Stickle-back. Ten dorfal Spines. 

Much like the former, but lefs. Raj. 
145. Will. 342. 

3. Spina- 

FISHES. T H R A C I C li 77 

3. Spinachia. Great Sea Stickle-back. Dorfal 
Spines 15. Length 6 or 7 inches. A 
fea fifh. JVilL 340. Raj. 145. 

SCOMBER. Head and Body comprefred, 
fmooth. Tail forked. Rays of the 
Gill-membrane 7. Spurious Fins near 
the Tail. 

"i. Scomber. Mackrel. Spurious Fins 5. A 
Ihort Spine at the Anus. 

2. Thynnus. Tunny-fijh. Spurious Fins 9 above, 

8 beneath. A Furrow near the ventral 

3. Trachurus. Horfe Mackrel^ or Scad, Late- 

ral line curved, prickly, ferrated. A 
Furrow in the middle of the Back. 
Rays of the firft dorfal Fin 8 ; 2d 34; 
anal 30. 

MULLUS. Head fcaly, comprefTed, de- 
cliving from the Crown to the Nofe. 
Gill-membrane with 3 Rays. Body 
with large Scales, eafily deciduous. 
Very fmall towards the Tail. 

I. Surmuletus. Surmullet. Cirri 2. Head fmooth. 
Colour brown olive, with 4 longitudi- 
nal yellow lines on each fide. Fins 
and Tail yellow ftaincd with fcarlet. 
Ravs of the 2d dorfal Fin 8. Corn- 
wall. Raj. 91, JVill. 285. 


'/S f I- S «. E S. T HO R A € I C I* 

TRIGLA. Head armed with rough linesi 
Gill- membrane with 7 Rays. Three 
Digits to the pe6toral Fins. 

1. Lyra. Piper. Nofe long, bifid ; Noftrils 

tubular. A large Spine above each 
pedtoral Fin. Spots 70 on each fide. 
Raj. 89. If^ill. 282. Dale Hariv. 431. 

2. Gurnardus. Grey Gurnard. Nofe bifid ; 2 

Spines at each eye. Back fpotted with 
black and red. Pedloral Fins pale. 
Raj. 88. JVill. 279. 

3. Cuculus. Red Gurnard. Nofe fomewhat 

bifid. Valve of the Gills ftriated. 
Lateral line imperfedt. Colour intirely 
red. Raj. 89. TVill. 281. 

4. Hirundo. Tub Fijh. Head fquare, fpinous. 

Three cirri between the pe6loral and 
ventral Fins. Lateral line prickly. 
Sides variegated with purple green and 
white. Peroral Fins black. Raj. 88. 
WilL 280. 


Ventral Fins on the Abdomen behind the 

COBTTIS. Eyes in the upper part of the 
Head. Gill-membrane with 4 to 6' 
rays. Valve clofed beneath. Body 
comprefl'ed, and nearly of an equal 

S I. Bar- 


1. Barbatulj. Grcuv.dlingy or Louche. Cirri 6. 

Head without Spines. Body fmooth, 
fpolted. DorDl I-'in 8 rays. Irides 
yellow. Length 3 inches. Raj. 124. 

2. Taenia. Bearded Loach. Cirri 6. Upper jaw 

longeft. A forked Spine under each 
Eye. No Teeth, nor lateral line. 
Dorfal Fin of 9 rays. Length 3 inches. 
In lakes and ponds. Raj. 124. JViU. 
265, 266. 

SALMO. Head fmooth. Teeth in the 
Jaws and on the Tongue. Giil- 
membrane 4 — 10 rays. Dorfal Fin 
near the Head. 

1. Salar. Salmon. Upper Jaw longcft. Rays 

ci the anterior dorfal Fin 15. Second 
without Rays. Lateral line ftrait, 
with a few black fpots above and be- 
low. Tail lunated. Raj. 63. //-^//A 

2. Eriox. Grey. Spotted all over with grev 

fpots. Tail equal. Not quite fo large 
as the Salmon. Raj. 63. IVill. 193. 

3. Trutta. Salmon Trout. Jaws equal. Dorfjl 

Fin 12 rays, v/ith black fpots. Pecto- 
ral Fins 13 rays, with 6 fpots. Tail 
" even. Head and fides fprinkled with 

black fpots furrounded witli brov/n. 
Raj. 63. 7/^/7/. 193. 

Fario. Trout. Lower Jaw lon'::^^. Sides 
if ctted with red. Tail lunated. Rays 




of the anal Fin lO. Ra}. 65. WilL 

5. Carplo. Gilt Charre. Five rows of Teeth 

in the Palate. Irides white. Sides 
and Belly filvery. Black fpots on the 
Back. Eight punctures on each fide 
the lower Jaw. Body broader than the 
Trout. Raj. 66. TVill. 197. 

6. Alpinus. Red Charre. Lower Jaw longeft. 

Irides grey j pupil black. Rays of the 
Gill-membrane 10. Rays of the dor- 
fal Fin 12. Back blackifti. Sides pale 
blue. Belly orange. Ventral Fins 
red ; external margin white. Tail lu- 
nated. Length 12 or 13 inches. TViri' 
andermercy IVeJhnorl. Raj. 65. Will. 

7. Eperlanus. ^melt. Dorfal oppofite to the 

anal Fin. Head diaphanous. Rays of 
the anal Fin 17. Back convex. La- 
teral line ftrait. Raj. 66. Will. 202. 

8. Lavaretus. Schelley. Teeth fcarce vifible. 

Upper Jaw longeft. Rays of the dorfal 
Fin 14. Lateral line ftrait. Scales 
larger than thofe of the Trout. Sides 
and Belly filver v/hite. Shaped like 
a Herring. Hulfwater, Cumber/. Raj. 
61. Will. 183. 

^. Thymalus. Grayling, or Umber. Upper Jaw 
longeft. Dorfal rays 23 ; thofe of the 
Gills 9. Body narrow. Teeth ex- 
treamly minute. Length 13 or 14. 



*[l^ r inches. Scales large, femicircular, and 
not imbricated. Raj. 62. fFlll. 187. 

ESOX. Under Jaw longeft, pundured. 
Teeth in the Jaws and Tongue. Body 
long. Dorfal Fin near the Tail. Rays 
of the Gill-membrane 14. 

1. Ofieus. Great Gar Fijh. Upper Jaw longcfl:. 

Mouth very large. Eyes fmall, Iris 
yellow. Scales imbricated 'and hard. 
Tail quadrangular. Body long and 
fmall. Length 2 feet, SuJ/ex coo/?. 
Hill. 223. 

2. -Lucius. Pih. Head comprefTed behind ; 
- . r, deprefled before. Body fomewhat quad- 
rangular. Teeth numerous regular. 
Lateral line ftrait. Tail forked ; Vv^ith 
19 rays. Raj. 112. //';//. 236. 

3. Belone. Horn FiJh, or Gar Fijh. Snout 

long, flender, pointed. Body long, 
fmall. Back olive-black. Sides yel- 
lowifli. On the Sea coaft. Raj. IC9. 
IVill. 231. Dale Harvj. 433. 

MUGIL. No Teeth. Rays of the Gill- 
membrane 7. Lips membranous. Scales 
imbricated, cover both the Body and 
the Head. 

I. Cephalus. Mullet. Dorfal rays 5. Mouth 
fmall. Lyes large, diflant, and placed 
near the extremity of the Head ; Iris 
white ; pupil black. Back brown-grey. 
Sides and Belly filver white. No la- 
teral line. Ventr.d and anal Fins 
G white. 


white. Dark longitudinal lines on the 
fides. Raj, 84, Will. 274, 

CLUPEA. Rays of the Gill-membrane 8. 
Belly very acute, ferrated. 

1. Harengus. Herring, Under Jaw longeft. 

Back dufky blue. Dorfal rays 19; 
Tail forked, rays 18. Raj. 103. Will. 

2. Sprattus. Sprat. Under Jaw longeft. Dor- 

fal rays 17. A dark fpot on each fide 
near the Gills. Length 4 or 5 inches. 
Vertebrae 48. Raj. 105. Will. 22I. 

3. Alofa. Shad, or Pilchard. Apex of the up- 

per Jaw bifid. Black fpots from 4 to 
7 on each fide. Dorfal rays 19; Tail 
19. Length above four times its 
breadth. Vertebrae 55. i^^". 104 .105, 
Will. 223, 227. 

CYPRINUS. No Teeth. Rays of the 
Gill-membrane 3. Body fmooth. 

I. Barbus. Barbie. Upper Jaw longeft. Beards 
4. Rays of the anal Fin 7. Back 
ridged. Tail forked. Length 10 or 
II inches. In moft of our rivers. 
Raj. 121. Will. 259. 

2* Carpio. Carp. Beards 4. Rays of the anal 
Fin 9. Hooks on the 3d ray of the 
dorfal Fin. Scales large, imbricated. 
Lateral line ftrait. Dorfal Fin blackifti ; 
the others pale red. Raj, 115. Will. 

3 3- Gobi©^ 


3. Gobio. Gudgeon. Beards 2. Upper Jaw 
longeft. Rays of the anal Fin 9. 
Black fpots on the Back and Sides. 
Lateral line black, and almofl ftrait, 
Dorfal rays 10. Tail a little forked. 
Length 5 inches. Raj. 123. Will. 264. 

4. Tinea. Tench. Colour purplifli black. Scales 

fmall and lubricous. Extremity of the 
Tail even. Dorfal rays 12 ; anal 25. 
Irides red. Length 10 or 11 inches. 
Raj. 113, 117. Will. 251. 

5. Cephalus. Chub, or Cheven. Head and Scales 

large. Body long and roundifh. Anal 
rays II. Tail even. Length 12 inches. 
In moft of our rivers. Raj. ijg. Will, 

6. Phoxinus. Pink, Minime, or Minoiv Pink. 

Body roundifh, pellucid. Lateral line 
yellow. Brown fpots near the Tail. 
Rays of the anal Fin 8. Colour va- 
rious. Length 2 inches. In (hallow 
rivers. Raj. 125. Will. 258. 

7. Leucifcus. Dace. Body roundifli and flender. 

Scales large, imbricated. Irides white. 
Rays of the anal Fin 10. Length 6 or 
7 inches. Raj. 121. Will. 260. 

B. Rutilus. Roach. Iris, ventral and anal Fins 
red. Scales large, imbricated; Late- 
ral line curved dovi^nwards. Rays of 
the anal Fin 12. Tail forked. Length 
6 or 7 inches. Raj. 122. Will. 262.^ 

9. Orfus. Rud, or Fincale. Colour yellowifh 

brown. Ventral, anal Fins anji Tail 

G 2 red. 


red. Red fpots on the valve of the 
Gills. Irides yellow w^ith black fpots. 
Dorfal rays lO ; anal 13. Tail forked. 
In the lakes in Uoldernefs, Lincolnft). 
Raj. iiS. WilI.2S2. Plot. Ox. 

10. Erythrophthalmus. Red Eye. Iris and Fins 

• red. Body tinged with red. Rays of 
the anal Fin 15. Dots on the lateral 
line 60. Rsj, 116. 

11. Alburnus. Bleak. Under Jaw longeft. 

Back convex. Belly fharp. Fins 
whitifh. Scales large, imbricated. Anal 
rays 20. Length 5 inches. In rivers. 
Raj. 123. PFill. 263. 

12. Brama, Bream. Fins blackifh- Back and 

Belly ridged. Scales large, imbricated, 
filvery. Rays of the anal Fin 27. Tail 
forked. Length 12 inches. Frequent 
in large rivers. Raj. lib. Will. 2^^.. 




Antennse 2. Legs 6 or more. Breathe through 
lateral Spiracula. 



Wings 2, covered by 2 Shells, divided by a 
lonoitudinal future. ^ 'j ::- . 

SCARABiEUS. Antenns clavated, their 
extremities f.ffile. Five joints in each 

, , . Thorax cormited. 

jy Typhoeus. Bull-comk-r. Thorajc fmooth 
with three hori.s or fpines, thofe on 

J each {\6q extending forxyard equal with 

i\[ , , the extremity of the Hea^. Shells 
ftriated. Legs hairy. Length ^ inch. 
Colour black. On Hamflead-Heath ia 

3|if.D . the Spring. ' Pet: gaz. 'T . t.^. f. 3. 

a.'Lunaris. Lunated Beetle. On the Head a 
lunated helmet and an ere^l horn. Tho- 
rax with t\yo horns and a longitudinal 
line. Eight longitudinal fcratches on 
eachShell. Colour dark brown. Length 
•^^-^^'^ inch. ■^'^''-•1 

-sM .' G 3 3. Nu- 


3. Nuchicornis. ...... An erecS horn on 

the back of the Head. Thorax rounded. 
Head and Thorax Waek. Shells grey 
clouded with black. Length -j^ inch. 
Under Swines dung, frequent in the 

4. FofTor. Lttt/e oval Beetle. Black and fl^ining. 

Three tranfverfe points on the Head, 
Nine longitudinal ftriaa on the Shells. 
Length 4 inch. 

5. Fimetarius. Dung Beetle. Thorax rounded, 

with a margin. Head and Thorax 
black. Antennae and Shells red, in 
fome grey. Frequent in the Spring on 
Cow-dung. Length i. of an inch. 

(f. Haemorrhoidalis Extremity of the 

Shells and Legs red. Size of a grain 
of Millet. In muflirooms and putrid 

'^. Stejcorarius. Common Dor, or Clock. Hel- 
met raifed in the middle. Corfefeit 
rouhded, margined. Above black. Be- 
neath fhining blue. Thighs hairy with a 
brown fpot on the anterior ones. Shells 
ftriated. Lensith i inch. 

S. Vernalis. Colour intirely dark 

fhining blue. Shells notftriated. Length 
^ inch. Otherwife like the former. 

9. Horticola. Black LegSy or Garden Beetle. Be- 
neath black and hairy. Head and 
Thorax blue. Shells light brown. 
Length 4- inch. On Apple trees. 

10. Me- 


JO. Melolontha. Tree Bettle^ Brown, or Blind 
Beetle. Thorax hairy. Incifures of 
the abdomen white. Triangular white 
fpot on each fide the Belly. Four ftriae 
on each Shell. Tail (harp, long, 
curved. Leaves <rf the Antennae 6 or 
7. Length i inch. Geof. I. 70. 

?I. Solftitialis. Hoary Beetle. Thorax hairy. 
Shells pale brown with 3 white lines. 
Tail not long. Length 4 inch. Fre- 
quent in Autumn, in the eaftern part 
of this kingdom. 

12. Hemipterus. Flat Beetle. Scaly with white 

dots. Head long and fmall. Thorax 
woolly, margined, with two longitudi- 
nal ridges. Shells abbreviated. Length 
-i inch. 

13. Fafciatus, Yellow Beetle. Head, Body, Corfe- 

let black with yellow hair. Shells 
pale yellovkT with 3 black crofs-lines. 
Tail not quite covered. Length -i 

14. Auratus. Rofe Chaffer^ Brafs Beetle^ or Gretn 

Beetle. Colour green with a bronze 
tinge. White tranfverfe fpots on the 
iliells. Sternum proJ€<Ss towards the 
Head. Length \ inch. On flowers, 
particularly rofes, and pioniae. 

15. Nobilis Differs from the laft in 

being rather lefs, no bronze ting?, 
thorax not proje6ling. 

G 4. LUCA- 


LUGANUS. Antennae elevated, compreff- 
ed, pejStinato-ftfTile. Maxiilas extended 
fo.^s to refemble horns. Five joints 
in each foot. 

1. Cervus. Stag-Beeth: Plead and Thorax 

•black. Shells dark brown. Horns, 
refembling thofe of a Stag, forked ^ 
the end, a fmajl branch near the mid- 
dle on the infide, moveable. Shells 
plain. Length i.^.. inch. In feveral 
places near Jvondori. \ 

2. Parallelipipedus. ...... Like the laft, but 

much lefs, aiid'more compreffed. Co- 
lour black. P^t. p. 12. cap. i. n. 3. 

3. Garaboides. Blue Stag. A violet tinge. 

Horns lunated. Thorax margined. 
Length -i inch.^ •■ -' 

DERMESTES. Antennse of 3 joints, cla- 
vated, perfoliated. Thorax convex. 
Head concealed under the Thorax. 

1. Lardarius Black. Anterior part 

of the Shells grey. On each Shell 3 
black fpots in the form of a triangle. 
Produced from the bacon magot. 
Length 2. inch. 

2. Pelliq. Colour dark fhining brown. 

A wT^ite fpot on each- Shell. In houfes 
anu on flowers. Length i. inch. 

3. Domefticus Colour black brown. 

Thorax raifed and Ibmewhat hairy. 



Shells ftriated. Antennae redifh. On 
being touched it rolls- itfelf up, anjl 
continues motionlefs. It is this infe61-, 
fays GeofFroy, which makes the round 
holes in furniture, arid which we call 
• the <leath-watch. Length ^^ inch. 

^^^..umatus. . f ;. Colour ligpt brown. 

Eyes black. Thorax margined. Size 
of a loufe. In horfe dung. 

5. Pulicaris.- Flm Beetk. Oblong;, black. Shells 
:" abbreviated. Belly and Wings whitifli. 

Runs and flies eafily. ., jSi^^ of a flea. 

On flowers.^ 
.L £.16 ,3xciip8 . . .1 

":' ,^ PTINUS. Antennae fub-filiform, the joint? 
' ri- ; ■^^w•3^ds...'the end langell. Thorax 
rouridiffil 'concealing the head. 

"i". "Pediinicornis. , . i . . . . Black-brown. An- 
,, , tennae pafe yellow, with teeth on the 

' ^'^ inner fide. Legs colour of the An- 

tennae.' Length ^ incH. In old trunks 

of willows. 

... p 

2. Pcrtinax. . 4 . . . . Dark brown, with yel- 
low ifli fpots ; cylindrical, oblong. An- 
tenna plain like briftles. Thorax gib- 
bous. On being touched he rolls himfelf 
up, and continues motionlefs in fpite of 
torture. This infect, fays Linnaeus, 
deftroys my chairs. 

. Mollis Red brown, fhining. Eyes 

^ inch. 

4. Fur. 


ii( black. Shells foftilb. Length —o^ inch. 


4, Fur. . . • .?4f ^ Colour brown. Head large. 
Antcnn«e longer than the body. Eyes 
prominent. Corfeiet fmall, globous, 
tubercular, but not dentatcd. Shells 
with two tranfverfe white belts. Wings 
minute. Very deftruftive in cabinets 
of animal and vegetable productions. 
Length y inch. 

rilSTER. Antennse broken In the middfe 
with a folid bulb at the end. Head 

I. Unicolor Square, black, poliflied. 

Shells abbreviated, truncated, and faint- 
ly ftriated. Head minute. Tail rounded. 
Length from 1 to 4 tenths of an inch. 

t. Bimaculatus * Black, poHihed. 

Shells abbreviated, with i red fpoi on 
each. Size of a grain of rice. Geof. 
95. 2. Raj. 108. 14. 

. GYRINUS. Antennje clavated, ftlfF, 
(horter than the Head. Eyes 4. 

I. Natator. IFater Flea. Bright black. Feet 
yellow, flat, and large. Length 4 inch. 
Runs with great celerity, in circles, on 
on the furface of the water. Raj. 87. 

BYRRHUS. Antennse clavated, folid, 

I. Scro- 


^. Scrophularia. *.,.,« Body ova]> black. 
Belly covered with white fcales. Head 
fmall, retractile. Corfelet broad and 
covered with red and white fcales. 
Shells black, fcaly, with a white belt 
and white fpot on each ; future red. 
Length Ji^^ inch. Raj, 85. 37. On 

5. Verbafci Much like the laft, ex- 
cept that it is lefs, and has 3 pale un- 
dulated belts athwart the fliells. 

SILPHA. Antennie clavated, foliated. 
Head prominent. Thorax margined. 

1. Vefpillio Margin of the thorax 

broad. Shells abbreviated, black, with 
2 yellow belts. Thighs of the hind 
legs large with a fpine near their origin. 
Length near i inch. On dead bodies, 
Liji. tab. mul. 17. 15. loq. p. 381. 

2. Biphuftulata Antennas long and 

fmall. Black, with 2 red fpots on the 
middle of each Shell. Length i. inch. 

3. Puftulata Black, oblong. On 

the Shells 4 brown fpots. Length ^ 
inch. On trees. 

4. Quadripunfiata Head, Antennae 

and Legs black. Margin of the Thorax 
and Shells pale yellow, with 4 black 
fpots. Length ~ inch. In Cain-wood, 
near Hamilead. 

5. Sabulofa. 

^i 1 N S E CT si, C O L E P T E R A^ 

5. Sabuloftl 'ib^H • .' ' ■ Black. • Antennae {horfg 

gIbbuiaW' ' Five -ftriae on each fliell. 

Shells and Wings fhort. Five joints 

-on the 2 firft feeti 4 on the reft. In 


'6. A(^uatica. . •• . y. Brown, with a green 
bronze tinged Four ribs on the thorax. 
On each Shell 10 ftriae. LengtJi 4 

-X3 ,. .-Jlhdfe.' ' ..... ..... .-. 

y.Tulickia. ...... Black, oblong. Shells 

^ '"'abbreviated. Abdomen rounded at the 
extremity. Thorax and. Shells fcarce 
' margined. Length 1 line. Found fre- 
quently running on flowers. 

CASSID A.; Antennas knotted,' enlarging 
towards the ends. Shells and Thorax 
biordpfed. Head concealed under the 
cbrfelet. ,'<=:. 

' ' '■' ■>>*■ ■? ' V ■ ''"^^ ' "" '^'^^^ 

1. Viric|is. ' Green Tortoife Beetle. Shells, dotted 

^'1' r' and ftrisa^ed, o/efhanglihebocty.- Be'- 

^•'^. '"* ^^°%i'eath black. Above 'green. Length 

• '^' i line. On verficillated' plants, and 

thifileS. C2«.ujiij'i .£ 

• • ") ' . 

2. Nebulofa. , . V . . . t-iglit trown, clouded, 

with black fpots.' Shells larger than 
the body. Length I, 2, 3 lines. 'O^ 

3. NobillsL'* .'..... Yellowifh. grey, with a 

green-gold line on each fhell, which, 
dies with the infe£l. Length i ± line. 

4. Maculata. 


4.' Maculata Green, or red. Shells 

with longitudinal ftrlae, and 5 or 6 
black fpots on each fide the future; 
alfo 2 large black fpots near the upper 
external angle of the Shells. Length 
3 1. lines. 

COCCINELLA. Antennse knotted, trun- 
cated. Palpi longer than the antennae. 
Body hemifpheric. Shells and Thorax 
bordered. In each foot 3 joints. 

J. 2-pun£lata Head, Thorax, and 

Belly black. A large white fpot on 
each fide of the Corfelef. Shells red, 
with 2 black fpots. Length 2 i^ lines. 
On the alder and fome other trees. 

2. 5-pun<3:ata. .',?,>•'.. Differs from the 1 aft 

in having 5 black fpots on the Shells. 
In gardens. 

3. 7-pun£i:3ta. Lady Cow, or Lady Bird. Kead 

and Thorax black. Shells red, with 
7 bUck fpots. Length 3 or 4 lines. 
Geof. 321. 3. 

4. 9-pun(?iata Black. Shells red, 

with 9 black fpots. Length 24 lines. 
On trees, Geof. 323. 4. 

5. 14-punftata Above yellow. Po- 

(lerior part of the Corfelet black. On 
the Shells 14 fquare fpots. Length 2^ 
lines. Geo^. 328. 

6. i6-pun»S^a':a Head, Corfelet, and 

Siielis yellow, with 16 biack fpots. 



Suture black. Length i line. Geoff* 
339- 16. 

7. 22- punctata Head black. Cor- 

felet and Shells yellow ; the firft with 7 
black fpots, the latter with 20 only. 
Length 1 4 line. 

8. Conglobata Head, Corfelet, and 

Legs yellow. On the Corfelet 7 black 
fpots. Shells red with 8 black fpots on 
each. Length 2 lines. 

9. 14-guttata Head white. Eyes 

black. Corfelet red, with white edges. 
Shells red, with 14 white fpots. Length 
2 lines. In woods. 

10. 2-puftulata. ...... Head, Corfelet, and 

Shells black, with a red tranfverfe 
line, compofed of 3 fmall dots, on each 
fhell. Abdomen red. Length i line. 
On trees and flowers. 

11. 6-puftulata Head black, with 2 

yellow fpots. Corfelet black, with yel- 
low edges. Shells black, with 6 red 
fpots. Length 1 1. line. 

CRYSOMELA. Antennae knotted, en- 
larging towards the ends. Corfelet 

Body oval. 

I. Tanaceti. .:.,.. Black-brown, An- 
tennae of II globules, black. Head 
and Corfelet fquare. Corfelet and 
Shells pufidured j 8 longitudinal lines 



on the latter. Length 4 lines. On 
common Tanfy. 

Z. Graminis Convex, green-blue, 

bright, pundlured. Eyes yellowifti. 

3. Alni. Oval, dark blue. Shells 

punctured. Antennae and Legs black. 
On the common Alder. 

4. Betulae. ...... Dark blue. Shells punc- 

tured in ftriie. Length i i line. On 
Birch trees. 

5. Haemoptera Round, fmooth. 

Wings red. Length 31. lines. 

6. Cerealls Streaked longitudinally 

with alternate blue and bronze lines, 
and bordered vi^ith green-yellow. Wings 
red. Length 3 lines. 

7^ Polygoni Thorax cyllndricaL 

Globules of the antennae of equal fize. 
Head, Shells, and underfide of the Body 
blue. Corfelet, Thighs, and Anus red'. 
Legs and Antennas black. Shells ftri- 
ated. On gral's. 

8. Poljta. ....... Beneath green-bronze. 

Head and Thorax gilt. Shells red, 
pundured. Wings red. Antennoe 
' black. Length 2i ^^nes. On Wil- 


9. Populi '. Head, Thorax, and be- 

Xieath green-blue. Shells red, tiptwith 
black. Antennas black. Length ~ inch. 
On poplar trees. 

10. San- 


lo. Sanguinolenta Head, Corfelet, 

and under fide blue. Shells pun£lured, 

t black, with a red border. • Wings red. 

Length 5 lines. In .Woods. 

** sappers. Pojieriorihighs -thick i -E 

ii. Oleracea Green-blue. Corfe- 
let large and fquafe. Antennae half 
the length of the- body* Length 2 

'■■ lines. 

12. Hyofcyami ' Above fine blue. 

•In Shells ftriated. Legs brown. Length 

. I line. On common Henbane. 

13. Exfoleta Yellow. Eyes brown. 

Length I -|. line. In gardens. 

14. Nitldula Corfelet ruby-colour. 

Shells blue, ftriated. Legs yellow- 
brown. Leng<:h iline. 

\^. Nemorum Black, with a yellow 

longitudinal line on each Shell. Length 
4, I line. On aromatic plants. Liji. 
tabi mut. 1. 2. f. 29. 

*** Body cylindrical. 

J 6. 4-pun(5^ata Black, except the 

Shells, which are red with 2 black 
fpots on each. Antennae ferrared, and 
placed before the eyes. Length 2 

17. 2-pun6lata Antennas filiform, 

as long as the body, long-jointed. 
Corfelet gibbous, hemifpheric. Colour 
black, except the Shells, which are 



■ ■- red, with 4 black fpots. Head partly 

concealed. Length 2- lines. 

18. Sericea Rich glofiy fjreen. 

Shells puniflured. Antennje and Legs 
blackifh. Corfelet gibbous. Antennas 
long-jointed. Head priiy concealed. 
Length 3 or 4 lines. Geo^. 233. 3. 

**■** Body oblong. Thorax narrow. 

19. Cyanella Blue-green. An- 

tennas filiform. Thorax long. Shells 
filiated. Length 2 lines. GcoJ/. i±t^. ^. 

20. i2-pimaita Red. Shells with 

6 black fpots on each. Antennas black. 
Length 2 i. lines. On Sparagus. 

21. Phellandrii Black. Corfelet 

bordered with yellow. On each Shell 
2 yellow firipes. ' Length 2 '- lines. 
Gco-f. 266. 20. On the roots of Water 

22. Afparagi Head, Antenn.-r, and 

under fide of the Body, black. Thorax 
red, with 2 black fpots. Shells yellow, 
with a black-blue crofs, and 4 fpots. 
Length inline. On Sparagus. 

CURCULiO. Antennae clavated, elbow- 
ed in the middle, and fixed in the fnout, 
which is prominent and horny. Joints 
in each foot 4, 

* Long-jnouted, 

I. AHivUi-ie Black- blue. Shells 

darker than the reft, and ftriated with 
H minute 


minute pun£lures. Size of a Flea. On 
Eryfimum alliaria, &c. 

2. Cyaneus Black. Shells bluifh, 

and ftriated with minute pun^luies. 
Feet brown. Target white. Size of 
a flea. On Willows. 

3. Cerafi Black. Shells oblong, 

ftriated. Double the fize of a Flea. 
On Black Cherry-trees. 

4. Pruni Black. Antennae brown. 

Two Tubercles on the pofterior part 
of the Thorax. On Cherry-trees. 

5. Acridulus Bluifli black, Pyri- 

form. Shells ftriated. Length li- line. 
Geoff. 291. 32. On plants of the clals 

6. Purpureus GlolTy purple. Snout 

very long. Petiver found this atEpfom. 

7. Granarius. Weevil^ or Bond. Black- brown. 

Snout long and fmall. Thorax punc- 
tured, and nearly as long as the abdo- 
men. Length 1 4- line. 

8. Dorfalis Antennae black-brown. 

Shells red, ftriated ; future black. 
Thighs black ; Legs yellow. Size of 
a Flea. On the lefler Celendine. 

9. Pini Dark grey. Extremities of 

the Antennae yellowifh. Entirely co- 
vered with minute pundlures. Two 
obfcure brownifh broad lines on the 
Thorax. Abdomen remarkably gibboug 
towards the anus. On the Scotch Fir. 

10. Lapathi, 


10. Lapathi Black and white, be- 

fet with prickles. Shells narrow be- 
hind. Abdomen blackifh. Legs partly 
reddifli. On Docks, particularly the 
Water Dock. 

11. Scaber Afh-coloured. Shells 

brown, obfcurely mottled with white, 
and covered with fnort brifiles. Legs 
red. Double the fize of a Loufe. On 

12. Qucrcus Pale yellow. Eyes 

black. Shells with a whitilli line near 
the future, and another at the bafe, 
forming a right angle* Somewhat 
larger than a flea. On the leaves of 

13. Vifcarise Head and Legs black. 

Thorax and Shells greenifli afh-colour. 
Oval. Villous. Size of a Loufe. On 
the Lythnis vifcaria. 

14. 5-maculatus Grey. Snout very 

long. On each Shell 2 white fpots, 
and a black one between each. Length 
1 lines. 

15. Pcricarpius Black-brown, fome- 

what globous, and clouded. Shells 
ftriated, with a heart-fhaped white fpoc 
on the anterior part. Length i line. 
On Fig-wort. 

16. Betulae Green-gold. Antennae 

and Eyes black. The anterior verge 
of the Thorax is fpinous in one fex. 

H 2 



in the other not. On Birch and Alder 
trees. Length 2 lines. 

** Skippers J pojlerior thighs thick. 

17. Beccabungoe Black. Corfelet 

greyifh brown. Shells reddifti, with a 
brown margin. Size of a Loufe. On 
Vernonica heccabunga, 

18. Alni Pale brown. Head and 

Belly black. Shells ftriated ; 2 black 
fpots on each. Length 14 line. On 
the leaves of the Alder. 



Fagi Black. Head and Thorax 

pun£lured. Shells flriated. Thighs 
pale. On Beech-trees. 

*** Long Snouts. Hiighs dentated. 

20. Pomorum Clouded afti-colour. 

On the Shells two tranfverfe brown 
belts. A white fpot on the pofterior 
part of the Thorax. Antennae and 
Feet brown. A ftrong fpine on each 
of the fore thighs. Bigger than a 

21. Nucum Dark brov/n. Snout 

as long as the body. Abdomen ends 
in a point. Shells marbled ; Scutellum 
white. Length 2 or 3 lines. In hazel 

22. Scrophularias Somewhat fpheri- 

cal. Thorax narrow, befet with yel- 
low-white hairs. Shells black-brown, 
ftriatcd ; a large black fpot on the fu- 
ture, on each fide of which are two 
I fmall 


fmall white fpots. Length 3 lines. 
On Fig-wort. 

1^3. Tortiix Body oblong, yellowifli. 

Breaft brown. Shells faintly ftriated. 
Thisihs dentated. Twifted in the 
leaves of thci Poplar. 

**** Short Snouts. Thighs dentated. 

24. Pyri Black. Snout deprefled. 

Head and Thorax minutely pun£lured. 
Shells oblong, with 7 excavated ftrias. 
Antennae and Legs reddifh. On Pear- 

25. Argentatus Covered with green- 

bronze fcales. Antennas and Legs 
brown. On each Shell 10 ftriae. 
Length 4 lines. In gardens. 

* *** Short Snouts. TJjighs not dentated. 

26. Incanus Black, befet with 

whitifh hair. Shells oblong, flriated, 
rounded. Antenna red towards the 
bafe ; firft joint very long. No wings. 
Length 2 — 4 lines. 

27. Nebulofus Snout thick, carinated, 

black, with grey longitudinal ftripcs. 
Thorax chagrined, and covered with 
white hair. Shells black, with white 
hair, obliquely ftriated. Length 6 lines. 
On trees. 

ATTELABUS. Antennas thicker towards 
the apex. Head narrow behind. Four 
joints in each foot. 

H 3 I. Coryli. 


1. Coryli Beneath, Antennae, Head, 

Less black. Thorax and Shells red ; 
the latter ftriated. Length 3 lines. 

2. Formicarius Somewhat like an 

Ant. Head concealed. Antennas black, 
clavated. Thorax red, rough; ante- 
rior margin black. Shells with a double 
white belt, and red bafe. Length near 
half an inch, Runs quick. 

3. Aplarius Black-blue. Antennae 

black, clavated. Corfelet hairy. Shells 
•with 3 pale-red belts. Length 6 

CERAMBIX. Antennae articulated, and 
tapering to the end. Shells long and 
narrow. Four joints in each foot. 
Thorax with lateral fpines or tu,» 

1. Corlarius Black-brown, fiiining. 

Antennae of 1 1 triangular joints, and 
proceeding from the center of the eye. 
Jaws flrong. Palpi 4. Thorax mar- 
gined, tridentate. Shells margined. 
Length In rotten wood. Raj. 95. 

2. Mofchatus. Goat-chafer. Blue-green. An- 

tennas length of the body. Shells with 
2 longitudinal rugae. Wings black. 
Length I inch. Smells like mufk. 

3. Rufticus Yellow-brown. Long, 

flender. Antennae fomewhat fhorter 



< than the body. On each Shell two 

narrow ridges. Belly brown. Lift, 
loqu. 383. 10. 

4. Sanguineus Black. Corfelet and 

ShelljS red, hairy. Length half an inch. 

LEPTURA. Antennae tapering to the 
end. Shells narrower at the apex. 
Thorax fomewhat cylindrical. 

1. Aquatica Gilt. Antennae black. 

A tubercle on each fide of the Corfelet. 
Shells ftriated and truncated. Pofterior 
thighs larger, with a fpine on the in- 
terior fide. On Water-plants. 

2. Melanura Black. Shells brown- 

yellow, tipt with black. Antennae 
length of the body. Thorax conic. 
Length 3 — 5 lines. 

3. Virens Black, covered with yel- 

low green hair, except part of the 
fhells, which is pundured. Antennae 
above black, beneath yellow. Liji. T. 
mut. 18. 23. 

4. Arcuata. Great Wafp Beetle. Black- brown. 

Antennse length of the body. Target 
yellow. Three tranfverfe yellow lines 
on the Head ; 3 on the Thorax ; and 
3 yellow arched lines, with as many 
fpots of the fame colour, on the Shells. 
Length 5 — 8 lines. In rotten wood. 
Pet. t. 63. 7, 

H 4 5. Arietis. 


5. Arietis. Common JVafp Beetle, Dark brown. 
Anterior and pofterior margin of the 
Corfelet yellow. Target yellow. Four 
yellow lines on each Shell. 

6'. Pr^ufta. ...... Black. Shells foftifh, 

pundlured, yellow tipc with black. 
Fore Legs yellow. Antennae not quite 
the length of the Body. Length 2 

LAMPYRIS. Antennze filiform. Shells 
flexile. Thorax plain, fomewhat or- 
bicular, concealing the Head. Sides 
of the Abdomen papillous and folded. 

1. No£liluca. Glow-tvorjn. Male : Antennae 
and Head black. Shells brown, cha- 
grined, with 2 longitudinal raifed lines. 
3Slear the extremity of the Abdomen 4 
luminous fpots. Length 4 lines. Fe- 
male : No Shells nor Wings. Brown. 
Abdomen of 10 rings, the 3 laft of 
which are luminous. Length 6 lines. 

CANTHARTS, Antenns taper. Thorax 
margined. Shells flexile. Sides of the 
Abdomen papillous and folded. In 
each Foot five joints. 

I. Fufca Antennas flat, black, 

yellowifii at their bafe. Head, Shells, 
Legs, and Belly black-brown. Thighs, 
Jaws and Sides yellowifh. Length 
half an inch. On flowers. 

2. Livida. 


2. LiviJa. ....... Head orange. Eyes black. 

Corfelet tawny red. Shells black, or 
pale yellow. Legs black and yellow. 
Beneath black. Sides partly yellow. 
On flowers. 

3. JEnez Green-gold. Shells red 

on the external fides. Jav/s and 3 or 
4 firft beads of the Antennas yellow : 
the 2d and 3d of thefe globules have 
each a fharp appendix. Length 3 lines. 
On flowers. 

4. Fafciata Antennae and Legs black. 

Thorax greenifh. Shells black, with 2 
red belts. Length li. lines, 

5. Biguttata Greenifh-brown. Legs 

yellow. Shells black-brown, abbre- 
viated, and tipt with orange. Length 
14- line. 

6. Minhna Head and Antennas black. 

Corfelet red, with a black fpot on the 
center. Shells deep brown, tipt with 
yellow. Length i line. 

ELATER. Antennae taper, lodged in a 
groove under the Head and Thorax 
Under fide of the Thorax terminates in 
a point lodged in a cavity of the Ab- 
domen. Laid on the back, they fpring 
a confiderable height. 

I, Bipuilulatus Black, glofly. A 

red fpot near the bafe of each ShtW. 
Length 3 lines. 

2. Ruficollis. 


2. Ruficollis. ...... Black. Thorax red. 

On each Shell 8 ftrix. Shells blui(h. 
Length 3 lines. 

3. Caftaneus., Thorax brown, fome- 

what hairy. Shells ftriated, yellow- 
brown, tipt with black. Length 5 lines. 
In woods, on the bark of trees. 

4. Sanguineus Black. Shells red, 

with 10 longitudinal ftriae on each. 
Antennse ferrated, efpecially in the 
male. Length 5 lines. On the bark 
of trees. 

5. Balteatus , Black. Shells ftriated, 

with the anterior part yellow-red. 
Length 4 lines. 

6. Peflinicornis Brownifh green, 

with a copper tinge. Antennae ferrated, 
particularly in the male, which is alfo 
greener than the female. On each 
Shell 9 ftriae. Length 6 lines. 

7. Niger Black-brown, clouded, 

and covered with fhort grey hair. An- 
tennae fliort, and fomewhat ferrated. 
On prefling appear 2 veficles near the 
Anus. Length half an inch. 

CICINDELA. Antennae taper. Jaws 
prominent, denticulated. Eyes promi- 
nent. Thorax margined. In each 
foot 5 joints. 

J. Campeftris Above green-gold. 

Beneath copper-tinged. Eyes large. 



Thorax angular and narrower than the 
head. Six white fpots on each Shell. 
An oval fubftance at the bafe of each 
thigh. Legs long and flender. Length 
6 lines. Runs quick. In paftures. 

2. Riparia Green-gold. Eyes black. 

Thorax narrow. Shells covered with 
broad excavated fpots with a reddifti 
ftud in the center of each. Length 2 
or 3 lines. On wet fandy ground. 

3. Aquatica Black-bronze. An- 

tennae flender. Head deeply furrowed, 
Corfelet pun£lured. Shells ftriated. 
Length 3 lines. In wet fandy ground. 

BUPRESTIS. Antennae taper, the length 
of the thorax. Head half concealed. 

1. Chryfoftigma Brown-gold. Eyes 

large. Thorax broad and fhort. Shells 
long, narrow, ending iji a point, with 
3 ftriae and 2 gold fpots on each. 
Length half an inch. 

2. Ruftica Bright green-gold. Eyes 

red. A round hollow fpot on the po- 
fterior part of the Corfelet. Shells long 
and narrow, with 10 ftrize on each. 
Length 7 lines. 

3. Granularis Antennas clavated. 

Above brown-brafs. Beneath black. 
Shells ftriated. Thorax with 5 furrows. 
Size of a Flea, 



DYTISCUS. Antennas ra per, or clavato- 
perfoliated. Feet villous and broad. 

* Antenncs ■perfoliated. 

1. Piceus Black. Antennas of 9 

joints, brown, except the }aft which is 
black, fmooch, and larger. Falpi 4, 2 of 
which are lon.^er than the Antennae. 
Thorax and Shells plain and glofly. Ex- 
tremity of the Abdomen fomev/hat 
pointed. Length an inch and a half. 
A fpine at the pofterior part of the 

2. Caraboides Black, glofly. Shells 

punctured in ftriae. Abdomen rounded. 
Antennas and Palpi black. Spine of 
the SterMum fhorter than in the laft. 
Length 7 lines. 

3. Fufcipes Black. Palpi and Feet 

brown. Thorax punflured. Shells 
ftriated. Length 3 lines. 

** Jntenna taper. 

4. Latiffimus Black. Exterior mar- 

gin of the Shells broad, yellov/. Length 
1 ^ inch. On water. 

5. Marginalis Black. Exterior mar- 

gin of the Thorax and Shells yellow. 
£ycs large, " found,' black. A tranf- 
verfe tawny line on the upper lip. 
-Palpi 4. Antcnn.-E and Palpi tawny. 
Length I inch. On water. 

6. Semi- 


6. Semiftriatus Elack-brown. Head, 

Antennae, margin of the Thorax, ex- 
terior edges of the Shells, and beneath, 
yellow. On each Shell 10 ftrioe, which 
extend only -l^^-^- of its length. Length 
near an inch and half. Is not this the 
female of the laft ? Water. 

y. Cinereus. Small fmooth TV^ater- Beetle. Head 
black, the anterior part yellow ; alfo 
5 yellow fpots, ;ind a tranlVerfe yel- 
low ftripe. Shells afa-cqlour, with 
yellow margin. Beneath black, with 
yellow fpots bfi the Sides. Legs black 
and vellov/. Antennas yellow. Length 
7 lines. Water. 

S. Sulcatus Shells back, with' four 

^■^ broad furrows, in which are grey-brown 

hairs. Otherwife like the laft, of which 
it is probably the female. Length 6 
lines. Water. 

CARABUS. Antennse taper. Thorax and 
Shells margined. A large appendix at 
the bafe of the pofterior thighs. Five 
joints in eaqh. foot. 

I. Granulatus Thorax deep purple 

fprinkled with copper. Shells dark 
green, ftriated v/ith gold ; three rows 
of oblong beads, with intermediate flrait 
convex lines, on each Shell. No 

W; Wings. Length 8 lines. In the fields 

near London, 

2. Leu- 


2. Leucophthalmus. ....... Black. On 

each Shell 8 ftriae. Thorax fmall. 
Liji. loqu. 390. 

3. Violaceus Black. Margin of 

the Thorax and Shells gloffy violet. 
Length |. of an inch. Runs very 
quick. In fields. 

4. Crepitans Head, Antennze, Tho- 

rax, Legs, red-brown. Eyes black. 
Shells and Belly black-blue. Shells 
ftriated. Length 3 lines. Under ftones. 

5. Cyanocephalus Head and Shells 

blue. Thorax and bafe of the An- 
tennas red-brown. Legs black and 
red. Length 3 lines. 

6. Melanocephalus Head, Shells, and 

beneath, black. Antennae, Corfelet, 
Legs red-brown. On each Shell 8 
ftriae. Length 3 lines. 

7. Vulgaris Antennae and Legs 

black. Thorax as broad as long. Above 
black-bronze. Beneath black. Length 
3 lines. 

8. 6-pun(5tatus. ...:.. Head and Thorax 

glofly-green. Shells bright copper, 
faintly ftriated, and with 6 pundtures 
on each, ranged longitudinally ; ex- 
terior margin green. Length 4 lines. 
On the fand near brooks. 

9. Uftulatus Head and Thorax 

black; the latter rounded. Shells black- 
brown, with 2 yellow fpots on each. 



Bafe of the Antennae and Legs brown. 
Length I, 2, or 3 lines. 

10. 4-maculatus Head black. Cor- 

felet yellow, with a confpicuous mar- 
gin. Shells obtufe, fmooth, brown, 
with 2 pale yellow fpots on each. An- 
tennae and Legs pale yellow. On the 
the fandy banks of rivers. 

TENEBRIO. Antennae globular, and 
larger at the end. Thorax margined. 
In the 2 hind feet 4 joints, in the 
other 5. 

1. Molitor Winged. Above black. 

Beneath black-brown. Antennae length 
of the Thorax. Head and Corfelet 
fmooth. Shells long and ftrait, with 9 
ftriae on each. Upper part of the 
thighs large and round. Length ylines. 

2. Mortifagus. Slow-legged Beetle. No Wings. 

Black, not gloHy. Antennae of 1 1 glo- 
bules, and placed before the Eyes, 
which are fmall. Shells fmooth, united, 
ending in a point. Articulation of the 
thighs with the body, a ball and focket. 
Fcctid. Length I inch. Z,//?. /c^. 388. 21. 
Charlt. Ex. 48. Geof. 346. i. 

3. Coeruleus. Bloody-egg Beetle. No Wings. 

Antennas blue tipt with black. Black- 
blue. Shells obtufe. Thorax orbicu- 
lar. Length i inch. On being hurt, 
difcharges a red liquor from the mouth. 
Raj. 388. 



MELOE. Antennae globular, the laft glo- 
bule oval. Thorax roundifli. Shells 
foft. Head gibbous, and bent down- 

I. Profcarabeus No Wings. An- 
tennae thickeft in the middle. Black- 
blue. Head broad. Thorax narrower 
than the head, and without margin. 
Shells pointed and fhort. On being 
touched, a brown liquor ilRies from the 
joints. Length i inch. Geof, 377. i. 

MORDELLA. Antennae filiform, ferrated, 
joints triangular. Head bent down- 
wards. Palpi comprefled, clavated,,and 
obliquely truncated." Shells curved to- 
wards the apex. 

I. Aculcata Black. Antennae of ir 

joints, firft 4 globular, the reft trian:- 
gulaj-. Shells fmooth, fnbrt. Abdomen 
ends in a foft point. Four joints in the 
2 hind feet, 5 in the reft. Length 3 
lines. On flowers. 

STAPHYLINUS. Antenna globular. In 
each foot 5 joints. Shells curtailed. 
Wings covered. Tail defencelefs, with 
2 veiicles. 

I. Murinus Antennae of 9 globules. 

Head deprefied. Downy, grey clouded 
wilh black. Length 6 lines. On 

2* Alaxiliofus, 

insects; coleoptera. 113 

2. Maxillofus. ...... Black, downy. An- 

tennae of II globules. Jaws as long 
as the head. Shells gieyifli, cover one 
third of the Abdomen. Length i inch. 
In woods. 

3. Rufus Orange colour. Antennas 

fomewhat larger at the ends. Head 
black with long Jaws. Pofterior part 
of the Shells, and Anus black. On the 
middle of the Shells 2 longitudinal 
punctured lines. Length 3 lines. 

4. Riparius Red-brown. Head, An- 

tennae, and 2 laft rings of-the Abdo- 
domen black. Shells blue. Length 3 
lines. On wet fand. 

5. Chryfomelinus Short, oval. Head 

and Abdomen black. Corfelet and 
Shells ftraw colour. Antennas brown, 
enlarging towards the end. Abdomen 
fliort, thick, villous. Length i line. 
On fand, and near walls. 

FORFICULA. Antennas tapering. Shells 
curtailed. Wings covered. Tail forked. 
In each foot 3 joints. 

1. Auricularia. Earwig. Antennae of 14 joints. 

Brown. Shells tipt with white. Length 
7 lines. 

2. Minor. Lefs Earwia. Pale chefnut. An- 

tennae of II j«pi;its. Length 3 lines. 

II. H E- 



Shells, pt upper wings, femi-cruftaceous, 
not divided by a ftraight future, but incumbent on 
each other. Beak curved downward. 

BLATTA. Antennae taper. Thorax or- 
bicular, margined. 

I. Grientalis Brown. Head fmall 

and almoft entirely concealed. Corfe- 
let large and oval. Shells tranfparent, 
membraneous, and fhort. Three ftria?, 
the middle one ferpentine, on each 
Shell. Two veficular points, one on each 
fide the laft ring of the Abdomen. The 
Female has neither Shells nor Wings, 
but the rudiments of each. Length 
near an inch. In bake-houfes, and near 

GRYLLUS. Head maxillous, and with 
Palpi. Antennae filiform, or taper. 
Wings folded. Hind legs ftrong for 

1. Bipunftatus Dark brown. No 

Shells. Corfelet, gradually diminifh- 
ing, extends to the extremity of the 
Abdomen. Antennae filiform, ftiort. 
In each foot 3 joints. Length 4 lines. 

2. Subulatus. Dark brown. An- 

tennae filiform, Ihort, of 13 joints. 



No Shells. Corfciet: longer than the 
body. Length half an inch. 

3. Gryllotalpa. Aide Cricket. Dark brown. 

Antennae filiform, long, fmall. Head 
long and fmall. Four fliort thick Palpi. 
Corielet cylindrical. Shells fhort. 
Whole Body villous. Two fmall Tails. 
In each foot 3 joints. Fore feet large, 
palmated. Length 18 lines. Lives 
chiefly under ground. 

4. Domefticus. Houfe Cricket. Antennae long, 

filiform. Head large, roanJ. Thorax 
fhort, broad. Shells, in the Male, 
longer than the Abdomen ; in the Fe- 
male much fhorter. In the Female, 
a long hard point, thick at the end, at 
the extremity of the Abdomen ; in both 
2 appendices. Kind feet much larger 
than the reft. Length i inch. 


5. Campeftris. Field Cricket. Antennae black, 

almofl as long as the body, the* laft 
joint very large. TJiorax very fliort. 
Shells oval, alh-colour. Two Tails. 
Feet black. Jaws firong. Lodges un- 
der ground. 

6. Verrucivorus. Great green G^'cifshopper. An- 

tennae longer than the body, and taper. 
Shells clouded, and Wings reticulated j 
both exceed the length of the abdomen 
confiderably. Beyond the Abdomen of 
the female extends a kind of Iword 
with a double blade. Length i inch. 

I 2 7. GrofTus, 


7. Grofl'us. Common Grafshopper. The larger 
fort greenifli, the leller red. Antennae 
cylindrical, of 24 joints. A ridge in 
the form of an X on the Corfelet. 
Length 5 — 10 lines. 

CICADA. Antennae taper. Shells mem- 
braneous. In each foot 3 joints. Hind 
legs ftrong for leaping. 

1. Cornuta Black-brown. An- 

tennae fliort. Thorax biccrnuted, the 
posterior horn extends almoft to the 
extremity of the Abdomen. Wings 
diaphanous, crofTed. Brown veins on 
the Shells. Length 4 lines. On trees, 
ferns, &c. 

2. Spumaria. Black-headed Froghopper^ or Cuckow- 

fpit Infe^^ or Froth-worm. Brown. Be- 
neath lighter. Shells with 2 imperfect 
white belts, or long tranfverfe fpots. 
In the midft of white froth on diverfe 

3. Leucocephala. ...... Head and forepart 

of the Corfelet yellow white. Shells 
brown, with a yellow border. Beneath 
yellowifh. Length 2 {- lines. 

4. Lateralis Black. Shells with a 

white border. Beneath white ; middle 
of the Belly black. Length 3 lines. 

5. Striata Head pale-green, with 6 

black fpots. On the Target 2 black 

fpots, with a pale circle round each. 

I On 


On the Shells black and white oblique 
ftriae. Beneath brown. Length 1 4- 

6. Interrupta. Striped Froghopper. Head black 

with a few yellow fpots. Corfelet black, 
with a yellow fpot on the pofterior part. 
Target yellow in the center. Shells 
yellow with black lines. Beneath 
yellow. Length 2 lines. ' 

7. Viridis Head yellow, with 2 black 

fpots. On the Target 2 black dots. 
Wings and upper part of the Abdomen 
lead colour. Legs yellowifh. Length 
3 lines. On water plants. 

8. Ulmi Yellow-green. Ends of 

the Shells brown-gold. Length i-i- 
line. On Elms. 

9. Rofas Green-yellow. Wings 

white. Length i line. On rofe-trees. 

NOTONECTA. Antennae beneath the 
Eyes. Wings crofTed and complicated. 
Feet formed for fwimming. Hind feet 

I. Glauca. Common Boat-fly. Head yellow; 
Eyes brown, large. Thorax, anterior 
part yellow, pofterior black. Shells 
clouded black and brown. Beneath 
brown. Feet of 2 joints. Length 6 
lines. Swims on its back. On fmocth 

I 3 2. Striata. 


2. Striata. Brotvn Boat-fy. Deprefled. Head 
and Legs yellow. Eyes dark brown. 
Thorax and Shells brown with many 
tranfverfe undulated parallel yeilowifh 
Jines. Feet of i joint. Length half 
an inch. Fore feet like crab's claws. 

7 Smells difagreeably. On water. 

■3. Minutillima. Little Boat-Jiy. Grey, with Ion- v 
gitudinal brown fpots. Length i line. 
Swims on its back. 

NEP.A. Antennae, or Fore legs cheliform. 
Wings crwfied and complicated j fore 
part coriaceous. 

'%, Cinerea. Water Scorpion. Black-brown. Head 
fmall, Antennae cheliform. Thorax 
almoft fquare. Target large, brown. 
Shells large. One joint in each foot. 
Length near an inch. In the Female 
the Abdomen terminates in two long 
appendices. Four legs only. On water. 

2, Cimicoides Olive, Antennae 

very fhort. Head broad, flat. Two 
fore legs cheliform. Sides of the Ab- 
domen ferrated. In each foot 2 joints. 
Length 4 or 5 lines. On water. 

3. Linearis Green-brown. An- 

tenna cheliform. Legs 4. In each 
foot one joint. Head fmall. Thorax 
longp cylindrical. Abdomen red be- 
neadi. Two long Tails. Length, ' 
exclufive of the Tails, 13 lines. On 
ftagnant water. 



CIMEX. Antennae longer than the Tho- 
rax. Thorax margined. In each foot 
3 joints. 

1. Lc£lularius. HoufeBug. No Shells or Wings. 

Reddifh brown. Head and Shoulders 

2. Scaraboides Antennae fomewhat 

clavated. Target covers the whole 
Abdomen. Above black-bronze. Wings 
white. Legs fpinous. Beneath black. 
Sixe of the Lift. On flowers in mea- 

3. Clavicornis Antennaeof 4 joints, 

clavated. Head and Belly black. Legs 
brown. Corlelet black, with a white 
margin. Shells diaphanous, white, WMth 
black punctures on the edges. Length 
J ■^- line. 

4. Corticalis Blackifh. Extremely- 

flat and thin. Head triangular. An- 
tennae of 3 joints. Shells and Wings 
grey. Abdomen long, flender, and 
imbricated at the fides. SiT^e of the 
houfe bug. On trees. 

5. Betulac! Brown-grey. Much de- 

prefled. Thorax furrowed, rough, black 
in the center, fides grey, denticulate. 
Shells p;rcy, clouded. Wings brown. 
Legs black s Feet red. On birch-trees. 

6. Filicis Oval, deprefled. Head 

and Legs livid. Eyes, Abdomen, and 
[ 4 Thorax 


Thorax black. Shells brown, with a 
ycllowifh margin. On Fern. 

7. Marginatus Red-brown. An- 

tennas of 4 joints, red in the middle, 
with fpines near their bafe. Thorax 
obtufely angulated. Abdomen broader 
than the Shells. Length 6 lines. 

8. Baccarum Qval. Olive- brown. 

f Beneath brown-yellow. Antennae and 

{ides of the Abdomen alternate black 
and yellow. 'Ihorax fhort and very 
brpad. A large orange fpot at the 
pofterior angle of the Target. Length 
half an inch. Extremely fcetid. An- 
tennae of 5 joints. On Goofeberry 
- bufhcs. I caught one of thefe on the 
bag of a gentleman's wig in Fleet- 

9. Janiperinus Roundifl). Green, 

with yellow margins. Antennas of 5 
joints. Snout bends quite under the 
Belly. Corfelet large, with obtufe 
angles at the fides. Target laro-e. All 
the upper part punctured, wiia black 
dots. Length half an inch. 

10. Caeruleus ' Oval. Blue-green- 

bronze. Antennae of 5 joints, and 
Legs black. Corfelet and Shells punc- 
tured. VVingsbrown. Length 3 lines. 

11. Oleraceus ■. Above bh;ck-blue- 

bronze, with red or white lines and 
fpots : viz. on the Corfelet a longitu- 
dinal line ; on the point of the Target 

a fpjt J 


a fpot ; a fpot on the anterior part of 
each Shell ; and a line on the exterior 
verge of both Corftlet and Shells. 
Joints of the Antennae 5. Length 3 

^2. Bicolor Above black- blue. Be- 
neath black. Exterior verge of the 
Corfelet white. Tw^o vi'hite fpots on 
each Shell. Membraneous part of the 
Shells brow^n. Joints of the Antennae 
5. Length 3 lines. 

13. Acuminatus Oval. Yellow- 
white. Antennseof 5 joints, red-brown. 
Snout fiiarp. Thorax narrow before j 
reft of the body oval. Two brown 
longitudinal lines from the crown to 
the center of the Target. Length 3 

J4. Perfonatus Black. Head fmall ; 

Snout long, fharp. Eyes very large. 
Antenna of 4 joints, Iharp pointed. 
Corfelet triangular, with 2 large tu- 
bercles on the fore part. Shells en- 
tirely membraneous. Legs long. Flies 
well. Length 7 or 8 lines. In houfes. 

^5. Hyofcyami Scarlet Bug. An- 
tennae of 4 joints. Head, Corfelet, 
pofterior point of the Target, Shells, 
and under fide of the Body red. An- 
tennas, Eyes, and Legs black. Two 
black fpots on the Head ; 2 on the 
Corlelet, and a black crofs on the 
Shells. Length 4 lines. 

16. Equeftris. 


16. Equeftrls Head, Corfelet, Shells, 

and Belly red. Eyes, Antennas, Legs, 
fore part of the Corfelet, and a tranf- 
verfe belt on the Shells, black. A 
white fpot on the membraneous part of 
the Shells. Antennce of 4 joint?. 
Length half an inch. 

17. Apteru5. ."".". f, . . Antennae of 4 joints. 

Hea(?i 'Antennae, Legs, and Target 
black. Corfelet black, with a broad 
red margrn. Shells red, with a round 
black fpot in the middle. Beneath 
black, with a red margin. Length 4 

18. Pratenfis Oblong, Above 

grey- green -yellow. On the Target a 
yellow heart-fnaped fpot, and three 
fpots on the Shells. Beneath, An- 
tenn?e, and Legs yeljowilh. Antennae 
of 4 joints. Length 3 1. lines. 

•ic). Umbrattlis. Green yellow. A 

grcenifl'i hcart-fhaped fpot on the Tar- 
get. A brown fpot on the Shells. 
Antennae brown of 4 joints. Length 
I l- line. On flowers. 

'20. Striatus. Fire Jlreaked Bugkin. Antennae 
black, of 4 joints. Eyes and Legs brown. 
Corfelet black, with 5 longitudinal 
yellow lines. Target black. Black 
and yellow longitudinal lines on the 
Shells, with a vellow trian'2;le at the 
ends. Beneath black. Length 3 lines. 
In the woods near Hamftcad. 

21. Populi. 


21. Populi Brown and white clouded. 

Antennae as long as the body, taper. 
Shells deprefled. Legs long, black and 
white. In woods, particularly on the 
trunk of the Poplar. 

22. Ulmi. ...... Antennae not quite fo long 

as the body, taper. Head and Thorax 
red-brown. Shells pale, with longitu- 
dinal crimfon veins. Wings brown, 
with white fpots. 

23. Abietis Antennae filiform, black, 

of 4 joints. Head (harp, black. Tho- 
rax black, behind red-brown. Target 
black. Shells pale, fides yellow, black 
fpot in the middle. Legs red. Fore 
thighs very thick and dentated. Ab- 
domen brown. On the Scotch Fir. 

24. Lacuftris Above black. Beneath 

black and white changeable. Antennae 
black, of 4 joints, half as long as the 
body. Eyes large, prominent. Fore 
legs much fhorter than the reft. Length 
4 Tines. Runs quick on the furface of 
ftill water. 

25. Stagnorum Black-brown. Long, 

flender. Head one-third of its whole 
length. Antennae as long as the head, 
and very fmall. Eyes minute, promi- 
nent. Fore legs (hort. Length ~ inch. 
Breadth ^ line. On ftagnant water. 

26. Vagabundus Brown and white. 

Head large ; Snout curved. Thorax 
long, cylindrical. Shells very long. 



Forelegs fliort, thick. Four hind legs 
very long and flender. Length 2 lines. 
Breadth ^ line. 

APHIS. Beak inflexed. Antennae longer 
than the Thorax. . Wings 4, erecSi:, or 
none. Feet of one joint. Extremity 
of the Abdomen generally forked, 

1. Ribis. Currant Lovfe. Green- brown. An- 

tennas black, longer than the body. 
Wings ere6l, with black veins. Podex 
prominent, with 2 bridles. Size of a 
common loufe. On red currant bufhes. 

2. Ulmi. Ehn Loufe. Oblong, brown, covered 

with thin white down. Antennae thick. 
Wings tranfparent, with a brown fpot 
on the exterior margin. Size of a grain 
of millet. 

3. Sambuci. Elder Loufe. Bluifh black. Mi- 


4. Rumicis. Dock Lcufe. Black- bronze. An- 

tennae white, tipt with black. Legs 
grey, with bluifh joints. Bafe of the 
Wings green. On the ftiarp-pointed 

5. Acetofae. Sorrel Loufe. Black, with a green 


6. Lychnidis. Campion Lcufe. Black. An- 

tennas and Legs pale. Abdoinen ob- 

7. Rofxc. Rofe Loufe. Green or red. Antennae 

blackj the length of the abdomen. 

i. Tilijc. 


8. Tilia?. Lime Lcufe. Oblong. Greenifh. An- 

tennae and Legs black and white. 
Wings bordered and fpoticd with 

9. Brafficas. Callage Loufe. Green, mealy. 

10. Craccae Oval, margined, bluifli- 

black, mealy. 

11. Sonchi Black, or fometimes 

bronze. Between the tails a third ap- 
pendix, curved upwards. On the Sow- 

12. Cardui Brazen-black, poliflied. 

Legs and Antennae black, with the bafe 
whitifh. Abdominal appendix black. 
On Thirties. 

13. Tanaceti Red-brown. Rudi- 

ments of the Wings, AntennDS, and 
Legs paler. On I'anfy. 

14. Abfinthii Black. Back greyifh, 

with a large brown fpot. Middle ap- 
pendix erecl. 

15. Jaceae Black. Wings white. 

Extremity of the Abdomen brown. 
On common Knapweed. 

16. Betulae Greenifh. No Wings. 

Sides fpotted with black. On Birch- 

17. Fagi Green, covered with white 

down. On Beach-trees. 

j8. Quercus. 


i8. Quercus Brown, Trunk three 

times as long as the Body. Under the 
bark of trees. 

19. Salicis Black, with white fpots. 

Tails brown. On Willows. 

20. Populi Oval, livid. On each 

fide 5 white fpots. No Tails. Rudi- 
ments of the Wings acute. On Poplars. 

21. Aceris. ...... Green. Middle of the 

Head and of the Corfelet black. A 
brown fpot near the Tail. On the 
leaves of the Maple. 

22. Atriplicis Green. Eyes black. 

Rolled up in the leaves of grafs-leaved 

CHERMES. Trunk or Snout proceeding 
from the Breaft, between the firft and 
fecond pair of Legs. Antennae longer 
than the Thorax. Wings 4, deflexed. 
Thorax gibbous. Skip. 

1. Graminis Antennae whitlfh, tip- 

ped with black. Legs white. Head 
and Thorax grey, with white lines. 
Does not fkip. 

2. Pyri Grey. Abdomen fhort, 

with tranfverfe white lines. On Pear- 

3. Sorbi Above ftreaked with black. 

Beneath greenifli. Corfelet yellowifh, 
with two dots on the anterior part, and 
on the pofterior 4 black lines. ■ On the 
mountain afh. 

4. L'^rticjc. 


4. Urticse Brown. Sides and Legs 

white. Antennae black, bafe white. 
Eyes yellowifh. On Nettles. 

5. Alni. White. Eyes lateral, pro- 

minent. Tail forked. Antennas va- 
riegated. Mouth black, between the 
ift and 2d pair of Legs. On the com- 
mon alder. 

6. Quercus White- yellow. Shells 

with 4 brown fpots on the exterior, 
and one on the interior Margin. On 
the leaves of the Oak. 

7. Abietis. White-yellow. An- 

tenna; taper. Eyes brown, with a black 
fpeck between them. Wings bluifli. 
Length 2 lines. In large tubercles on 
the ends of the branches of the com- 
mon Fir. 

S. Fraxini Brown. Antenna fmall 

and taper. On the Corfelet a tranf- 
verfe belt, and a longitudinal yellow 
line. Wings longer by half than the 
Abdomen, which is blackifh. Length 
i~ line. On Afh-trees. 

COCCUS. Trunk proceeding from the 
breaft. Wings, in the Male, 2, ere£l: ; 
Female none. Four or 6 v/hite briitles 
at the extremity of the Abdomen. 

X. Hefperidum. Green-honfe Bug. Oval, brown, 

oblong, covered with a kind of varnifh. 

Legs 6. A notch and 4 brililes at the 

I Tail, 


Tail. When young it runs upon thrf 
trees, but afterwards fixes on feme leaf 
where it hatches an infinity of eggs, 
and dies. The male is a very fmall fly. 
On Orange-trees, &c. 

2. Betulae Green-brown. On Birch- 

trees ; on the divarications of the 

3. Phalaridis Red-white, mealy. On 


THRIPS. Beak obfcure. Antennae as long 
as the Thorax. Body narrow. Wings 
4, ftraight, narrow. 

1. Phyfapus Black. Shells blulfh. 

Antennae of 6 joints. Wings very 
narrow. Runs quick, and fkips. Lefs 
than a Flea. Frequent on Dandelion. 

2. Juneperina Antennae of 7 joints, 

yellowifti. Corfelet and Abdomen 
black. Shells and Wings grey. Legs 
black. Feet, of two joints, yellowilh. 
Runs fwift. On the bark of old trees* 
Length I line. 

3. Fafciata Black. Shells with 3 

white belts. Lefs than a Flea. On 


Wings 4, imbricated with very minute 
fcales. Tongue, or Trunk, fpiral. Body hairy. 



PAPILEO. Antennne clavateil. Wings, 
when at reft, erecb. Diurnal. 

X. Machaon. Royal ff^t/Iiam, or Sivallow-iail 
Butterjiy. Black and yellow. Biidy 
black above, yellow on the Sides and 
Belly. Eyes, Antennas, and Trunk 
black. Firft Wings rounded, irt the 
middle yellow, with black lines ; near 
the pofterior verge 8 yellow femilunar 
fpots. Second Wings black and yel- 
Jow, with 2 long Tails, and 2 orange 
fpots, furrounded with blue, at tne po- 
fterior angle. Caterpillar large, fmooth 
pale-green, with black tranfverfe ftripes 
fpotted with orange. On umbelliferous 
plants. Breeds in May and July. 

2. Podaliripus. ...... In fliape and colour 

much like the laft, but the yellow is 
paler, and the Tails longer and nar- 
rower. On the I ft Wing, 6 black 
ribs, and a black margin. On the 2d, 
an oblique black rib, and a black bor- 
der with 4 or 5 blue femilunn.r fpots, 
and near it 6 yellow fpots. Rare, in 

3. Cratcegi. IFl/ite Bntterjiy. zvhh bhck veins. 

Wings rounded. Bieadth near i-\. 
inches. In meadows in June. Cater- 
pillar black, covered with white and 
yellow hair : feeds on the white 

4. Brafljcae. Great JVhite Cahbage-Butterf.y. Firfl: 

Wings white, with 2 black fpots in 
K the 


the middle, and black at the extremi- 
ties. Second Wings white, with a 
black fpot on the fuperior margin. 
The female has no black fpots on the 
upper furface. Caterpillaryellow, black, 
and blue. Breeds in May and July. 

5. Rapae. Small White Cabbage-Butter jiy. Like 

the laft, but lefs. Caterpillar green, 
with a pale yellow line on each fide. 

6. Napi. JVhite Butterfly^ with green veins. White 

above. Firil Wings tipt {lightly with 
i black, and the under furface of the 2d 
Wings fpread with broad green veins. 
Female has 2 or 3 black fpots on the 
upper furface of the Wings. Cater- 
pillar, feeds on cabbage, &c. 

7. Cardamines. Orange Tip. Wings rounded, 

a little fcallopped. Firft Wings, the 
fuperior part, orange, tipt with brown ; 
a femilunar black fpot near the cen- 
ter, the reft white. Second Wings, 
beneath, marbled with green. Middle 
fizc. Female wants the orange-colour. 
Caterpillar green, feeds on grafs. 

8. Hyale. Saffron Buttcrjiy. Wings entire, rounded, 

yellow. On the ift Wings a black, 
and on the feccnd an orange fpot, bor- 
dered with black. Antennae and Less 
yellow. Breadth 2 inches. In autumn, 
but rare. 

9. Rhamni. Brim/lone Butterfly. Wings angu- 

lated, entire, pale greenifh yellov/, with 

a fmall brown fpot near the center of 

I each. 


each. Antennae brown. Caterpillar 
green, feeds on the Buckthorn. Breeds 
in July or Auguli. 

10. Hyperantus. Brotvn-EyedBiitierf.y. Wings 

entire, brown. Eeneath, on the ill 
Wings 3 eyes, on the 2d 5, Common 
near woods. July and Augufl:. 

11. Jo. Peacock Butterfly. Wings angulated* 

indented, yellowiih red, with a large 
blue eye on each. Caterpillar black, 
dotted with white ; on nettles. Com- 
mon all fummer. 

12. Maera. Great Ar?in. Brown and ornno;e 

variegated. Second Wings flighcly 
fcallopped* Above, ift Wings, a blade 
Eye, white in the center ; 2d wings 3 
eyes. Beneath, 2d Wings, 7 eyes on 
each. Reds frequently on v/olls and 
flones. Caterpillar fmooth, feeds on 

13. iEgeria. TVood Argus -Butter fly. Wings 

rounded, and a little indented. Above 
brown, with orange irregular fpots. 
On the I ft Wings, near the upper an- 
gle, a black eye wi;h a white pupil, 
and 3 on the 2d. Caterpillar fmooth, 
green. July and Auguft. On grafs. 

14. Gahthea. MarhJe Butter fly . Wings rounded, 

indented. White, with black lines and 
irregular fpots. Beneath, on the ift 
Wi/igs, one fmall Eye, on the 2d 5, 
Caterpillar fmooth, yellow. 

K 2 15. Semele. 


15. Semele. Black-eyed Marble Buttcrjly. Wings 

indented, black-brown, with a light 
yellow broad tranfverfe ftripe, on which 
are 2 eyes on the ift wings, and i on 
the 2d, which are waved with white. 
In woods. 

16. Jurtina. Meadow Brown Butterfly. Wings 

above brown, yellow in the middle, 
■' with one Eye in the ift. Beneath, 2d 

Wings grey in the middle, indented. 
Common in meadows. 

17. Cardui. Painted Lady. Wings indented. 

Above, J ft Wings, towards the extreme 
angle, black, with white fpots ; the 
reft orange, fpotted with black : 2d 
Wings orange, with a range of black 
fpots near the Margin. Beneath, ift 
Wings variegated with black, white, 
orange, yellow : 2d marbled with grey, 
yellow, brown, and 5 Eyes near the 
Margin. Caterpillar grey, fpinous : 
feeds on nettles. 

18. Iris. Emperor of the JVoods, or Purple High- 

flyer. Wings indented. Above pur- 
ple, darker round the edges, with 7 
diftin6l white fpots on the ift Wings ; 
on the 2d an irregular broad white 
ftripe, and a yellow eye. Beneath 
black, brown, and white. Large. 

19. Antiopa. TVillow Butterfly. Wings angu- 

lated, black, with a yellow-white ex- 
ternal border. In the anterior mar- 
gin of the ift Wings, 2 long yellowifti 



fpots. Between the black and yellow 
a range of bluifh eyes. Body and An- 
tennae black. Caterpillar black, fpi- 
nous, with large brown fpots. Very 
rare in this kingdom. 

20. Polychloros. Great Torto'ife-Jhell Butterfly. 

Deep orange, with black fpots. Wings 
confiderably indented. Above, on the 
ift Wings 7 fpots, on the 2d i, and a 
broad exterior black border edged with 
black and yellow. The 2 black fpotS 
which touch the anterior edge of the 
ift wings, are long and much larger 
than the reft. Beneath black-brown 
and dull yellow. Caterpillar brown and 
yellow, fpinous ; feeds on Elms, Pear- 
trees, &€. 

21. Urticae. Small Tortoife-Jhell Butterfly. Much 

like the laft, but lefs. On the ift 
Wings 6 black fpots, 2 of which are" 
very fmall, and one whitifti fpot. Ca- 
terpillar feeds on nettles. Plies early 
in the fpring. 

22. C. album. Comma Butterfly. Orange, fpotted 

with black. Wings much indented. 
Beneath, on the 2d Wings, a white 
fpot in the ftiape of a comma, C, or G. 
Legs white in the middle. Caterpillar 
fpinous, brown on the Sides, and white 
on the pofterior half of the Back. On 
hops and nettles. 

23. Atalanta. Admiral Butterfly. Wings black, 

indented j a broad tranfverfe fire- red 
K 3 ftripe 


{Iripe, and 7 or 8 white fpots on the 
I ft pair ; a red pofterior margin, and 4 
blacK dots on the 2d. Caterpillar grey, 
fpinous ; on nettles. 

24. Lucina. Small Fritillary. Wings indented. 
Above red-brown, with minute yellow, 
black and white fpots. Beneath, on 
the 2;d wings, a double band of white 
fpots, and fome black ones near the 
pofterior margin. Frequent near Cam- 
bridge. Sometimes in Hornfey-Wood. 

^5. Maturna. Heath Fritillary. Above orange, 
longitudinally ftreaked, and tranfverfely 
waved with black ; bordered with fmall 
femilunar white fpots. VVings entire. 
Yellov/ fpots on the under furface of 
the 2d Wings. Caterpillar black, 

26. Cinxia. Plantain Fritillary. Above like the 
laft, but the tranfverfe waves are more 
diftinct, and on the 2d Wings are 8 
black dots. Beneath, the lit Wings 
have a yellow exterior border, and the 
2d 3 broad yellow ftripes. Caterpillar 
black-blue, fpinous. In meadows. 

ay. Papliia. Great Fritillary. Large. Above, 
pale orange, with fine black veins, and 
feveral rows of large, round, black 
fpots. Beneath, the 2d Wings are 
greenifli, with 4 filvery tranfverfe waves, 
in the exterior of which are 4 circular 
fpots. Caterpillar, above brown, be- 
neath yellow, fpinous, with 2 long 
horns. On nettles. 

28. Aglaja, 


28. Aglaja. Great Fritlllary Butterfly with filver 

fpots. Large. Wings a little indented. 
Above pale orange, with many round 
black fpots. Beneath, on the 2d Wings, 
21 or 22 filver fpots, 7 of which are 
femilunar, and regularly ranged near 
the margin. Caterpillar fpinous, black 
with a line of yellow fpots on each fide. 
In woods. 

29. Lathonia. Lefs Silver-fpotted Fritlllary. Silver 

fpots 30. Caterpillar brown, with a 
yellow line on each fide. 

30. Euphrofyne. Jprll Frltllla-ry. Above yellow, 

with black veins and tranfverfe waves. 
Beneath 9 filver fpots on the 2d Wings. 
Geof. 44. 1 1. 

31. Betulse, Broun Halr-Jlreak Butterfly. Lefs 

than the middle fize. Dark brown, 
with a large oblong orange fpot on the 
ift Wings. Beneath yellow and orange. 
Two fhort appendices to the 2d Wings. 
Caterpillar flat, and broadeft in the 
middle. On the black thorn. 

32. Qiiercus. Purple Halr-Jlreak Butterfly. Above 

deep purple, with a white exterior mar- 
gin. Beneath grey, ftreaked longitudi- 
nally, and waved tranfverfely, with 2 yel- 
low eyes, and a fhort appendix to each 
of the 2d Wings. Caterpillar broad in 
the middle, and fharp at each end. 
On oaks. 

33. Argus. Blue Argus. Above fine blue, with 

a white fringe on the exterior margin. 

K 4. Beneath 


Beneath grey,rprinkled with fmall bl-^k. 
eyes. Small fize. Caterpillar broad in 
the iniddle. Some of this fpecies of 
Butterflies have yellow-blaclc eyes on 
the upper furface of the wings. 

34. Argiolus Above blue, with a 

black exterior margin. Beneath bluifh 
grey, fprinkled with black fpots. Small. 

35. Rubi. Grec'n Buttcrjly. Wings indented. 

Above brown. Beneath green. Small. 
Caterpillar green, with a red head ; 
broad in the middle. On brambles. 

36. Pamph'lus. S>naU Heath Butterfly. Abov^s 

orange, with a brown exterior margin. 
Beneath, one Eye in the angle of the 
ill Vvings, and on tiie 2d a tranfverfe 
white wave. Caterpillar fmall, with a 
red head. Geoff. 53. 21. 

37. Phlaeas. ^mall Golden Black-fpotted Butterfly. 

Wings orange-bronze, fpotted with 
black. Short appendices to the 2d 
Wings. Small fize. Geoff. 65. 35. 

38. ComiTja. Chequered Hog. Deep yellow, with 

black veins and margin, and a black 
tranfverfe long fpot on the ift Wings. 
Small fize. When at reft, the ift wings 
ftand perpendicular, and the 2d hori- 
zontal. In meadows in autumn. 

39. Malvse. Grizzle^ or Broiun March Fritillary. 

Brown, fpeckled with white, and fringed 
with brown and while. In meadows 
in the fpring. Caterpillar grey, head 



black, and a few yellow fpots round 
its neck. On mallows and thirties. 

SPHINX. Antennae thickeft in the middle. 
Wings, when at reft, deflexed. Fly 
flow, morning and evening only. 

1. Ocellata. Eyed TFillow-Hawk Moth. No ^ 

trunk. Wings indented. Above, ift 
Wings dark and light brov/n, marbled ; 
2d red, vi'ith a large yellow-black eye. 
Beneath, a large red triangle from the 
bafe of the ift wings. Breadth 14 
inch. Caterpillar fmooth, green, with 
oblique white lines on the fides, and 
a pofterior horn. Eggs green. On 

2. Populi. Poplar- Hazvk Moth. Wings fcallopped, 

bluifh grey, waved with dark lines. 
On the ift Wings a long white fpot, 
and the bafe of the 2d red-brown. 
Wings reverfed. Length i inch. A 
long fpiral trunk. Caterpillar green, 
fmooth, with oblique white fpots, and 
a pofterior horn. On poplars and 

3. Tiliae. Lme-Hawk Moth. No trunk. Wings 

fcallopped. Antennae white on the 
upper fide, yellow on the under. Above, 
ift Wings grey-brown, with 2 irregu- 
larlargegreL^n fpoots; 2d Wings orange. 
Beneath greenifli grey. Caterpillar 
green, chagrined, with a pofterior hqrn_. 

4. Convolvuli. Unicorn^ or Bindweed-Hauk Moth. 

Antennae long, thick. Trunk very 
I lonif. 


long, fplral. Above, body marked with . 
'black and red belts; Wings entire, 
brown-grey, with black zig-zag tranf- 
verfe lines. Breadth 3 inches. Cater- 
pillar fmooth, green, v/ith a pofterior 

5. Liguftri. Privet-Hawk Moth. Antennas long, 

thick, brown. Trunk long, fpiral. 
Firft Wings 2 inches long, narrow, 
entire, brown ; 2d fhort, red, with 
black bars. Abdomen red with black 
rings. Caterpillar fmooth, yellow-green, 
with a pofterior horn. 

6. Atropos. Jeffamine-Hawk Moth. Wings en- 

< y^ ' Q ^^^^' '^^"^""^ long, fpiral. Above, ift 

^.-c^/A^ ef ^7'<Zi_V««/-T^Yj^gg brown, clouded with grey and 

/ei^^c P ■^*-<^ ycllov/, and a yellowifli fpot in the 

TyJ^/': /u^tK^ y/^^- *^^'^t^'' j 2d yellow, with 2 waved tranf- 

_ . /2^' ' ' verfe rtripes. Abdomen yellow, with 

/Cd. -ytfo . y biack-brown belts. Thorax marked 

^ S ^"^ l^ like a Death's-head. Length 2 inches. 

y^ Caterpillar very large, yellow, with 6 

green and orange oblique belts, and a 

pofterior horn. 

, 7. Elpenor. Elephant M:th. Wings angular,, 
entire. Above, ift Wings ftripcd tranf- 
verfely with red and green ; 2d black 
at the bafc, and red outwards. Body 
red and green. Caterpillar fmooth, 
brown snd yellovw', with a pofterior 
horn, and a inout like a Hog. On 
vines, co!ivolvu!us, &c. 

Stcil.'.aruin. Large Bee Moth. Antennae 
thick tov/aids tlic ends, brown. Trunk 




fpiral. Wings (hort, entire. Body 
thick J brown, hairy. Firft Wings brown, 
waved ; 2d red-brown. Refembles a 
large Bee. Caterpillar fmooth, with a 
pofterior blue horn, tipt with red. On 

► 9. Tipuliformis. Small Bee Moth. Thorax 
yellow beneath. Wings fhort, with 
black veins. Abdomen black, bearded, 
yellow at the extremity. Caterpillar, 
on the Lonicera. 

« 10. Filipendulse. Burnet Moth. Antennse, Legs, 

and Body black. Second Wings red, 

^^ with a greenifti border. Firft Wings 

'"-' bluifh green, with 6 red fpots, in pairs. 

Length 8 lines. Caterpillar yellow, with 

black fpots. On grafs. 

PHALvENA. Antennas taper from the 
bafe. Wings, in general, contradled 
when at reft. Fly by night. 

I, Pavonia. Emperor Moth. Antennae feathered. 
No trunk. Wings expanded, horizon- 
tal, rounded, entire, with a large eye 
in the center of each ; the ift red- 
brown, wi^ved J the 2d orange. The 
Antenns of the male are broader, and 
the wings of the female larger, waved 
with black and white, and bordered 
with yellow. Caterpillar green or yel- 
low, fpinous. On thorns and bram- 
jbles. Length of the Moth i inch. 

* Na 


* No Trunk. TVings reverjed^ i. e. \Jl TVitigs ho- 
rizontal^ and 2d ere£l. 

2. QuercifoHa. Lappit Mcth. Red-brown, with 

tranfverfe waved lines. Wings rounded 
and regularly fcallopped. No Trunk, 
but a {harp Nofe. Length li- inch. 
Caterpillar moufe colour, fpinous, with 
a trunked pofterior horn. Eggs blue, 
with brown hoops. On brambles and 
black thorn. 

3. Rubi. Fox-coloured Moth. Antennas fringed. 

Wings entire, with a whitifh margin ; 
2. whitifh tranfverfe waves on the ift 
pair. Caterpillar brown, with black 
rings. On brambles, &c. 

4. Potatoria. Drinker Moth. Yellow-brown. 
.-, "v-^ Wings (lightly fcallopped: on the ift 

p^ir, a dark oblique line from the ex- 
treme angle, and 2 white fpots near the 
anterior edge. Nofe (harp. Length 
I inch. Caterpillar hairy, black and 
brown, with white fpots on the fides. 
On grafs. 

5. Pini. Pit7e Lappit Moth. Wings (lightly 

fcailoped ; ift pair v/avcd with alternate 
broad tranfverfe grev and brown (tripes; 
a white triangular fpot near the anterior 
edge. Length i-i inch. Caterpillar 
large, brown, grey, white, On pines. 

6. Quercus. Great Eggcr Aloth. Antenna? fea- 

thered. Yellow-brown. Half the Wings, 
ne.Nt the Body, darker ; near the center 
of the ift a white fpot. Firft Wines 



alfo darker at the extremities, and the 
2d have a whitiih margin. Length 
I inch. The female larger, and lighter 
coloured. Caterpillar whitifh, with 
black rings. On oaks, Sic. 

7. Laneftris. Small Egger Moth. Dark brown. 

Wings rounded : on the ift a white 
tranfverfe wave, and two white fpots j 
on the 2d a wave only. Tail bioad 
and woolly. Length ^ inch. Cater- 
pillar hairy, black, with white rings 
and dots, and large orange fpots. On 
the black and white thorn. 

8. Vinula. Pufs Moth. Antennae feathered. 

Wings grey, ftreaked, dotted, and waved 
with black. Thorax dotted with black. 
Wings fomewhat diaphanous. Length 
I inch. Caterpillar green, high {houl- 
dered. Face and Back red. Two Tails. 
On oaks, willows, and poplars. 

9. Bucephala. Buff'-tip Aloth. Antennas fea- 

thered. Firlt Wings grey, with 2 
double tranfverfe brown waves, and a 
large yellowifh round fpot at the ex- 
treme angle. Second Wings plain, light 
yellow. Length fcarce i inch. Ca- 
terpillar hairy, yellow, with black fpots. 
On oaks, alh, &c. 

10. Verficolora. Glory of Kent. Antennse fea- 

thered, blackilh. Firft Wings red- 
brown, with 2 tranfverfe waved black 
and white lines, and 3 white fpots at 
the extream angle. Second Wino-s 
orange, with 2 white fpots at the ex- 


terior angle. Very rare. Length -I 

11. Populi. December Moth. Firft Wings dark 

brown, with 2 tranfverfe waved white 
lines, a white fpot at the bafe, and 
fpeckled margin. Second Wings light 
brown, with a tranfverfe white wave. 
Length more than half an inch. Ca- 
terpillar yellow, hairy. On oaks, ha- 
zel, &c. 

12. Neuflria. Lackey Moth. Antennae feathered. 

Light yellov/, with a broad, tranfverfe 
darker wave athwart the middle of both 
wings, bounded by a brown line above 
and below. The exterior margin of 
both Wings fpeckled. Length ^ inch. 
Caterpillar long, flender, ftriped with 
blue, red, and white. On thorns. 

** No Trunk. Wings deprejfed, defiexed. Back 


13. Caja. Great Tyger Moth. Antennas feathered. 

Firft Wings w^hite, with large irregular 
dark brown fpots. Abdomen and 2d 
Wings orange, with black fpots. Ca- 
terpillar, foxy, hairy, with white fpots 
on the fides. On lettuce, &c. 

14. Villica. Cream-fpot Tyger Moth. Antennar*, 

Head, and Thorax black, with a white 
fpot on each fide the latter, ift Wings 
black, with 8 large irregular cream-co- 
loured fpots. Abdomen orange, with 
black fpots. Length near i inch. Ca- 


terpillar hairy, foxy. On elms, net- 
tles, &c. 

15. Plantaginis. IFood Tyger Moth Antennae 

of the male feathered ; of the female, 
like briftles. Firft Wings black, with 
irregular broad white lines. Second 
Wings yellow, with black fpots. In 
the female, the broad lines are yellow. 
Abdomen red at the fides. Lensrth 4- 
inch. Caterpillar hairy, black, with a 
red Head. On plantain, he. 

16. Monacha. Black Arches. Firft Wrings white, 

tranfverfely waved with black. Second 
Wings bluifh white, with black dots 
in the margin. Abdomen red, pointed. 
Caterpillar yellow-white, with black 
fpots, hairy. On willows, oaks, &c. 
Length of the Moth ^ inch. 

17. Difpar. Gipfey Moth. Antennas black, 

and remarkably feathered, efpecially 
thofe of the female. Firft Wings grey, 
with 4 tranfverfe zig-zag lines, and a 
black Ipot. Fxternal margin of both. 
Wings fpotted with black. Abdomen 
of the female round, thick, and covered 
with thick down at the extremity. Ca- 
terpillar hairy. On oaks, afh, apple- 
trees, &c. Frequent about Ealing in 

18. Chryforrhcea. Tellow-tail Mcth. Antennae 

feathered. Entirely white, except the 
extremity of the Abdomen, which is 
yellow and hairy. Caterpillar black and 
red, hairy. On apple-trees, oaks, &c. 

19. Salicis, 


19. Salicis. JVhite Satin Moth. Antennae fea- 

thered, black. Body grey. Wings 
white. Legs black and white. Length 
near an inch. Caterpillar hairy, black, 
fpotted with white. On willows, 
poplars, &c. 

20. Coryli. Nut-tree Tuffock Moth. Antennae 

taper. Firft Wings grey and brown, 
tranfverfely waved. Second Wings 
white, with a brown and white margin. 
Caterpillar red-brown, with 2 dorfal 
and I tail tufc. 

*** No Trunk, fflngs deprejjed. Back hairy. 

21. Pudebunda. Yellow Tujfock Moth. Antennae 

feathered, brown. Wings light grey, 
^ ^ with faint tranfverfe waves on the ift 

pair. Fore-feet ftretched out beyond 
the Antennae. Length i inch. Ca- 
terpillar greenifh yellow, with 4 brufhes 
on the back, and a red tail. On fruit 

22. Fafcelina. Black TuJJock Moth. Antennae" 

feathered. Brown-grey, with 2 tranf- 
verfe red- brown waves on the ift 
Wings. Second Wings plain, with 
longitudinal and a flight margin. Ab- 
domen grey, broad, and thick fet with 
down, at the extremity. Caterpillar, 
with 5 white brufhes, tipt with black. 
On hedges. 

23. Antiqua. TVhite-fpot Tujfock Moth. Antennae 

feathered, black. Firft Wings cloudy 
orange, waved and fpotted with brown, 



and a white fpot on the pofterror angle. 
Female without Wings. Caterpillar 
with 4 white brufhes on its back. On 
trees. Length of the Moth a little 
more than 4 inth. 

24. Gonoftigma. Orange Tuffock Moth. Differs 

very little from the laft, except that 
the fpot on the Wings is not white. 
Female without Wings. 

25. Caeruleocephala. Black-thorn Moth. An- 

tennas feathered. Body brown. Firft 
Wings brown, marbled with bluilh 
green in the form of a double contigu- 
ous circle. Second Win^s lighter co- 
loured, plain, with a brownilh margin, 
fcallopped. Length -l inch. Caterpillar 
green and yellow, with fmall blade 
dots. On fruit trees. 

26. Ziczac. Pebble Moth. Brown and white, 

clouded like an Agate. Antennae fea- 
thered. On the interior margin of ths 
ift Wings, a remarkable appendix ; 
2d Wings fcallopped. Length 7 lines. 
Caterpillar fmooth, with 2 protuber- 
ances on its back. 

27. Coilus. Goat Moth. Grey, with (hort black 

irregular curved lines. Antennae foliat- 
ed. Abdomen yellowifti, with dark 
curved belts. Length i~ inch. Cater- 
pillar red, with few hairs and a black 
head. In rotten wood. 

**** Spiral Trunks ; Back fmooth ; TVtngs dcfiexed. 

28. Lubricipeda. Spotted Buff Moth. Irregularly 

fpotted with black. Abdomen orange, 
L with 


with 5 black fpots on t^e back and fides. 
Caterpillar light brown, hairy. On 
fruit trees. 

29. Ruflula Antennas feathered. 

Body and Wings yellow, with a red 
border. On the ift Wings, a brown 
and red fpot ; on the 2d two tranfverfe 
ftripes, and a brown arch. 

***** Back crejled. 

30. tibatrix. Furbelow Moth. Antennae a little 

feathered. Head and Thorax yellow. 
Wings, truncated, orange, variegated 
with brown and a(h-colour, with a 
white fpot near the bafe. Caterpillar 
fmooth, green, with a white line along 
the Back. On willows, rofe-trees, &c. 

31. Oo. Scalkp-wmged Oak Moth. Fir ft Wings 

brown-grey, with circles in the middle. 
Second Wings grey, with a brown, 
margin. Caterpillar fmooth, orange, 
with white fpots. On oaks. 

^2. Humuli. Otter Moth. Antenna (hort. Wings 
long, yellow, with oblique red ftriae. 
Wings of the male white. Body yel- 
low in both. No Trunk, 

** Spiral Trunk j Back fmooth, without creji. 

33. Dommula. Scarlet Tyger Moth. Firft Wings 
black with orange fpots. Second 
Wings fcarlet, with black fpots. Thorax 
black, with 2 yellow fpots. Abdomen 
black and fcarlet. Caterpillar brown 
and yelloWi On nettles, grafs, &c. 

34. Fuliginofa, 

Insects. lePidopter a. 147 

34. Fuliginofa. Spotted red and zvlnteTJnder-ivlng^ 
Moth. Firft Wings brown-red, with 
2 fmall black dots. Second Wings 
bluifh, with 2 black dots, and a brown 
margin. Length haiF an inch. Ca- 
terpillar hairy, brown. On turnips, 
muftard, &:c. 

^35. Jacobaes. Cinnabar Moth. Antennas: and 
Body black. Firft Wings black, with 
a longitudinal red line near the ante- 
rior margin, and 2 reJ fpots near the 
exterior. Second Wrings red, with a 
black margin. Length 8 lines. Ca- 
terpillar, with alternate black and 
oran<ze belts. On rao-wort. 

.36. Quadra. Yellow July Oak M:tb, Yellow, 
with 2 black-blue fpots on the ifr 
Wings. Caterpillar hairy, veliowiih, 
with one large black-brown ipot en 
the middle of his back. 

37. Nupta. Crimfon under-iuing Moih. Firft 
Wings grey and brown undulated ; 
2d crimfon with 2 broad tranfverfe 
black waves. Len2;th one inch. Ca- 
terpillar fmooth, grey. On oaks. 

^, Pacla. TViilow red-under-wlng jlfoih. Ab- 
domen, above reddifh. Firfl Wings 
irregularly waved, grey and brown ; 2d 
crimfon, with 2 broad black waves, and 
grey exterior margin. Length above 
an inch. Caterpillar brown, with fe\y 
hairs. On willowst 

L 2 39. Pronuba, 


39. Pronuba. Great yellow Under-wing Moth. An- 

tennae taper. Body and ift Wings 
brown-giey, clouded or waved, with 
a black fpot in the middle, and an- 
other near the exterior angle. Second 
"Wings yellow, with a broad black, 
wave near the exterior margin. Length 
one inch. Caterpillar fmooth, yellow. 
In gardens. Feeds in the night. 

40. Fraxini. Cliff den Nonpar il. Antennae ta- 

per. Thorax brown. Abdomen bluifh. 
Firft Wings grey, tranfverfely undu- 
lated, with a large white fpot in the 
centre. Second Wings black, with a 
bioati tian!ver(e blue curve in the mid- 
dle. Margin of both Wings fcallopped. 
Length i \- inch. Rare. 

41. Chryfitis. Green Silken Moth. Head, An- 

tennae and Thorax pale yellow. Firft 
Vv^'iiigs brown, marbled, with 2 tranl- 
verfe gold-green waves, and a whitifh 
fpot. Second Wings brown-grey. 
Margin of the Wings fcallopped. Ca- 
terpillar fmooth, orange, with white 

42. Gamma. Lambda liloih. Wings brown, 

marbled, with a white or yellowifh 
mark, refcmbling the Greek lambda, 
on the I ft pair. Length 8 lines. Ca» 
terpillar fmooth, green. On fage, &c. 

43. Fcftuca. Gdd-fpot Moth. Firft Wings brown, 

with 2 or 3 filver-golJ fpots. Second 

Wings plain yellow. Head, Antennae, 

5 Thorax 


Thorax orange. Abdomen yellow. 
Length 8 lines. Caterpillar fmooth, 
green. On water-grafs, Sic. 

44. Meticulofa. Jf7gle Shades. Antennas taper. 

Wings grey, marbled. Firft pair rcd- 
difh at the bafe, brown in the middle, 
v/ith a threefold triangle near the an- 
terior margin. Second Wings light 
frey, with a black fpeck in the cenrer. 
largin of both Wings irregularly 
indented. Caterpillar fmooth, green. 
On pot herbs. 

45. Pfi. Dagger^ Moth. Antennae taper. Body 

grey, i^ye.s black. FirH Wings whitiih, 
with 3 or 4 black marks in the form 
of daggers, or like the Greek pfi. Se- 
cond Wings plain, with fcallopped mar- 
gin. Length 9 lines. Caterpillar hairy, 
black, yellow, with a black horn. 
Sides black and rsd. 

46. Aceris. Sycamore Tuffock Moth. Antennae 

taper. Firfl: Vv'ings bluifla grey, with 
undulated black lines, and an oval rlna:. 
Second Vv'ings pl^in with a double 
dotted margin. . Caterpillar yellow, 
with a long orange tufi. On maples, 
walnut-trees, ccc. 

47. Exfoleta. S'word gra[s Moth. Corfelet black- 

brown. Abdomen reddiih white, Firft 
Wings long, narrow, anterior half 
whitifii, v/ith brown lines, pofterior 
red-brown. Second Wings dufky, v/ich- 
a whitifh fcallopped margin. Cater- 
L 3 pillar 


pillar green, with a yellow lateral line^ 
On Chenopodium, Campanula, Sec. 

a8 Verbafci. Water-Beiony Moth. Antenn* 
' taper. Firft Wings long, narrow, 

brown-grey, longitudinally ftrcaked, 
lio-hteft in the middle, margin indented. 
Second Wings brown, fmall. Cater- 
pillar yellow, fmooth, wiih 4 black 
jpots on each ring. Length of the 
Moth nearly one inch. 

^Q Rumicis. Bramble Moth. Firft Wings brown, 
clouded with black, with annular white 
fpots, and a tranfverfe v/hite Ime near 
the margin. Second Wings dark brown, 
• with a whitifh fcallopped margin. Ca- 
terpillar black-brown, hairy. On bram- 
bles and thiftles. 
.to. Oxyacanths. Ealing's Glory. Antennae ta- 
per. Firft Win^s dark brown, with z 
irregular orange Ypots, a tranfverfe line 
and^ external margin of the lame co- 
lour ; alfo a blue tranfverfe line, ayd 
blue pofterior margin. Second Wings 
duflcy. Length not quite i inch. Ca- 
terpillar brown and yellow. On thorns. 

ri. Oleracea Antennae taper. Body 

thick, fnort, hairy. Firft Wings nar- 
row, red-black, with a whitilh circle 
near the middle, and a white tranfverfe 
line, with 2 points in the middle. Se- 
cond Wings reddifh grey, with a black 
fpot in the center. Caterpillar ftriped 
purple and yellow. On peas, beans, 


52. Pifi, 


52. Pifi. Broom Moth. Body darkifti grey. Firft 

Wings red-brown, clouded with black, 
and light yellow ; 2 yellowifii fpots in 
the middle, and a yellowlfh narrow 
undulated line near the exterior mar- 
gin. Second Wings grey, with a 
whitifh margin. Length not quite i 
inch. Caterpillar fmooth, brownifh 
yellow. On broom, peas, &c. 

53, Atriplicis. Wild Arrach Moth. Firft Wings 

brown, blue, and yellow, clouded 3 a 
double yellow wave near the exterior 
margin, and ajcngifh bifid tranfverfe 
yellow mark near the center. Second 
Wings brown. Caterpillar fmooth, 

.54. .Delphinii. Peafe BloJJom. Firft Wings pur- 
plifh, with 2 yeilowifti tranfverfe waves. 
Second Wings dufky. Small fize. Ca- 
terpillar fmooth, yellowifh,. with black 
fpots. On Larkfpur. 

55. Oitrago. Sallo-w Afoth. Body thick, yellow- 

brown. Firft Wings angulated, yellow, 
with 3 or 4 oblique tranfverfe purplifli 
lines, with intermediate red-brown 
i'pots. Second Wings whitifli. Length 
7 lines. Caterpillar brown, fides yellow. 

* Geometra. Antenna feathered. 

56. Amataria. Buff" Argus Moth. Firft Wings 

angulated, buff, fprinkled with brown, 
and a red-brown tranfverfe line in the 
middle. Second Wings paler, with a 
xed-brown margin. Caterpillar green, 
L 4 wUli 


with yellow rings. On oaks. Length 
of the Moth half an inch. 

57. Sambucaria. Swallow-tail Moth. Wings 

angulated, pale yellow, with 2 tranf- 
verfe ftraight lines on each. Second 
Wing3, with 2 Tails and 2 black fpots. 
Large iize. Caterpillar brown. On 

58. Lacertinaria. Wtld-Rofe Moth. Wings an- 

gulated, brown-yellow, with 2 tranf- 
verfe curved lines on each Wing, and 
a brown fpot between thofe of the ift 
pair. Caterpillar fmooth, brown, back 
angulated. On oaks. Sic. 

59. Syringaria. Richmond Beauty. Wings an- 

gulated, indented, orange clouded. Be- 
neath darker, with a black fpot in the 
middle of each Wing. Lengih 9 lines. 
Caterpillar fmooth, with 10 feet, and 
a horn on the 8th rinf?. 


60. Prunaria. Orange Moth. Wings orange, 

fprinkled with brown, and a femilunar 
fpot on the ift pair. Female paler than 
the Male. Caterpillar brown yellow, 
with 2 fpines before and behind. On 

61. Betularia. Spotted Elm Moth. Wings white, 

fpotted and waved with black-brown. 
Caterpillar pale green, fmooth, with 2 
black-brown fpots near the Tail. Mid- 
dle fize. On elms, willows, &c. 

62. Wauaria, Goofeberry Moth. Wings orange- 

grey i on the anterior margin of the ift 



pair 4 tranfverfe irregular dark-brown 
ipots. Caterpillar green and white, 
hairy. Ongoolcberry-bufhcs. TVitks./^2. 

63. Papilionaria. Green Broom Jlloth. Wings 

green, with a tranfverfe white wave, 
and white irargin. Length 7 lines, 

** Antennez taper, like brijiles. 

64. Viridata Wings angular, green, 

with a pale tranfverfe line, and yel- 
lowifh margin. Small. On oaks. 

65. Chserophillata. Great Chimney Sweeper. Black. 

Firft Wings tipt with white, and ere<Sl. 
Caterpillar green. In meadows. 

• 66. Groffularia. Magpye, or Cur ra7:t- Moth. An- 
tennae aad Legs black. Body yeDcw, 
with black fpots. Wings white, with 
many black patches, and a tranfverfe 
yellow wave on the I ft pair. Caterpillar 
white, with black fpots on the back ; 
belly yellow. On currant and goofe- 

« 67. Crataegata. Brimjlone Moth. Antennce, 
Trunk, and Legs deep yellow. Eyes 
black. Wings brimftone, with 3 irre- 
gular brown fpots on the anterior mar- 
gin of the i ft pair. Caterpillar fmcoth, 
with a dorfal fpine. On the whi:e- 

68. Urticata Corfelet and Tail yel- 
low. Abdomen grey. Wings grey, 
with black- blue fpots, two rows of 
which form tranfverfe lines near the 



exterior margin. The bafe of the Wings 
ifometimes yellowifti. Small. Cater- 
pillar fmooth, green. On nettles. 

69. Brumata Wings brown-grey, 

with faint black tranfverfe lines. Wings 
of the Female very fhort, grey, with 
black fpots. Caterpillar green, with a 
white line on the fides. Very deftruc- 
tive to apple-trees. 

;yo. Prafmana. Green Moth^ with Jjlver lines. 
Body green and white. Firft Wings 
green, with 3 oblique white lines. Se- 
fo!id Wings pale green. Margin 
•orange. Caterpillar yellow and green. 
Anus orange. On am, oaks, &c. 

5^1. Viridana. ^mall Green Oak Moth. Firft 
Wings green, immaculate j 2d dufky. 
Caterpillar fmooth, green. 

72. Oporana, Plumb-tree Moth. Wings angu- 

lar, red-brown, clouded and reticulated 
with black. Caterpillar fmooth, green. 

73. Roftralis Wings brown-grey : 

on the ift pair 2 fpots, and a dark line 
near the extream angle. Caterpillar, 
on nettles. 

74. Verticalis. Mother of Pearl Moth. Wings 

ycllowifli white, with faint brownifh 
broken waves. Beneath yellowifli. 
Length 8 lines. Caterpillar green and 
white. On nettles. 

75. Evonymella. Small Ermine Moth. Firft 

VVin^s filver-whitCj with 3 or 4 rows 



of f mall black fpots. Second Wings 
lead colour. Abdomen black above, 
white beneath. Length half an inch. 
Caterpillar yeilowifti white, with 10 
black fpots on each fide. On fruit 

76. Culmella. Small Pajiure Moth. Firft Wings 

grey, with longitudinal white ftri?e, a 
filver marginal fringe, and 7 black fpots 
rans,ed tranfverfelv. Win^is circurh- 
voluted. In meadows on grafs, its 
head downwards. 

77. Salicella. Province-rofe Moth. Firft Wings 

""dark bkiifh grey, yellowifh white wy. 
the middle, with black fpots in the po- 
fterior margin. Thorax crefted. Smull 
fize. Caterpillar, on rofe-leaves. 

7S. Tapetzella Head white. Wings 

long, circumvoluted ; ill pair black 
half way from the Body, the other 
half white, with brown faint fpots : 
2d pair grey. Body black. Length 
near half an inch. Among woollen 

79. Sarcitella Wings bluifli bright 

afh-colour, with a black fpot in the 
center of each. Length 2 lines. Fre- 
quent in houfes. Caterpillar, very de- 
ftructive to woollen clothes. 

80. Granella Brown. On the jft 

Wings feveral fmall dark fpots, and 2 
yellow ones. Head yellowifli white. 

5 ^>*'* 


Eyes black. Length 4 lines. In houfes 
and granaries. 

81. Pomonella. Codling Moth. Firft Wings 

brown-grey, clouded. On the 2d a 
large red-gold fpot near the pofterior 
angle. Length near half an inch. Ca- 
terpillar orange, fpotted with black. 
On apple-trees. 

82. Didaityla. Brown Feathered Moth, Wings 

extended, bifid, pointed, red-brown, 
with whits long fpots. Second Wings 
white, tiipartite, fpotted. Legs white, 

Z-^. Pentada£lyla. JVlnte Feathered Moth, Eyes 
black. Body pale yellow. Wings 
very v.'hitC; extended: ift pair bifid ; 2d 
tripartite. Caterpillar green. 

84. Hexada£ly]a. Many-feathered Moth. Wings 
extended, grey, v/ith brown tranfverfe 
iva\ es ; ift Wings of 8 feathers ; 2d 
of 4, which the infedt expands and 
contrails like a fan. Length 6 lines. 
On the Lonicera, &c, 


Wings 4, naked, tranfparent, reticulated 
with veins or nerves. Tail without fling. 

LIBELLULA. Adder-hohs^ or Dragon-files. 
Mouth with 2 long lateral jaws. An- 
tenna; very fhort. Tail of the Male 

forked. Wings extended. 

I. 4-macu- 


1. 4-maculata Brown. Thorax 

covered with grey hair. Wings yel- 
lowifh at the bafe, with 2 brown fpots 
on the exterior margin. Length 14. 
inch. I caught this infe6l on board 
the Harwich packet, many leagues from 

2. Fhviola Eyes large, and near to- 

gether. Thorax black- brown, hairy 
with a yellow fpot on each fide. Ab- 
domen broad, flat, fhort, yellow above, 
black beneath. Wings with a black 
fpot near the end, and a large yellow- 
brown fpot at the bafe. Length i~ 
inch. Flies quick. 

3. DepreiTa Eyes brown. Head 

and Thorax greenifli, v.^ith ,2 yellow 
tranfverfe lines. A brown fpot on the 
exterior .margin of the Wings. Ab- 
domen cylindrical, -black above, yellow 
beneath, and covered with 'a bluifh 
grey duft. Length i~ inch. 

4. Vulgatiflima Brown. Front and fides 

yellow. An oblong brown fpot on the 
exterior margin of the Wings, the fides 
of which fpot are black. Length more 
than half an inch. 

5. ^nea Green-gold. Wings yel- 

lovvifli, with marginal brown fpots. 
The male has 4 briftles at the Tail. 
Length il. inch. 

6. Grandis Head yellow. Eyes brown, 

contiguous and large. Thorax brown 



with 2 oblique yeHow lines on each 
fide. Abdomen i^d-brown, with white' 
fpots. Wings yellowifh. with a brown 
rtiarginal fpot, and a brown protuber- 
ance at the bale of each Wingl Length 
2^ inches. 

|. Forcipata Head yellow. Eyes 

large, brown. Thorax greenifh brown, 
•vi^ith 3 black obliqUp lines on each fide. 
Abdomen brown, of 9 ringlets, with 
a yellow tranfverfe line in the middle, 
and 2 yellow fpots on the fide of each 
ringlet. Length I'l- inches. 

i8. Virgo Body Saxon-greenifh blue. 

Eyes diftant, remote. Wings of equal 
length, bluifti, brown in the middle, 
yellowifh at the bafe and apex, and, 
without marginal fpot. Length 2 

9, Puella Body blue, with 3 longi- 
tudinal brown lines on the Thorax, 
and a black ringlet near the extremity 
of the Abdomen ; the 2 laft brown. 
Wings whitilh, finely reticulated with 
black veins, and a black marginal fpot. 
Eyes diftant, remote. Length i ^ 

I^PHEMERA. Antennseveiyftiort. Twd 
protuberances before the tyes. Wings 
ercdl ; 2d pair fmall. Two or three 
Tails like bridles. Short lived. 

I. Vulgata, 


i. Vulgata Brown. Wings, with : 

brown veins, and 5 or 6 brown fpots. 
Three Tails as long as the Body, 
Length 2 lines. 

2. Vefpertina Black. Exteriormar- 

gin of the ift Wings black, the reft 
tranlpaient. Second Wings white. 
Antenn<E and Tails 3 times the len«^th' 
of the Body. Length 1 line. 

3. Culiciformis Brown. Win^^s 

tranfparent. Two whitilh Tails. Lengtii- 
2 lines. 

4. Horaria. ..,_.,., Brown. Wings dia^ 

phanous', exterior m'argirt thicker and" 
brown. Tails 2, white, with browa 
fpots. Fore Legs long. Length 3. 

5. Striata Thorax brown. Abdo- 

men white. Wings brownifh, ftriated. 
Tails 2, length of the Body. Length 
2 lines. 

PHRYGANEA. Palpi* 4. Protuberances 
before the Eyes 3. Antennse longer, 
than the Thorax. Wings crofling each 
other i 2d pair folded. 

i. Bicaudata Dark brown, with a 

yellow longitudinal line on the Head 
and Thorax. Antennae long, filiform. 
Wings 4. longer than the Body. Length 
S lines. 

2. Nebulofa, 


2. Nebulofa. ...... Bjown. Wings grey. 

Tails 2, fliort. Length half an inch. 

3. Striata. Red-brown. Eyes black. Wings 

clouded, lateral, and raifed obliquely at 
the ends. Antennae long. Length i" 

4. Rhomboidica Brownifh yellow. 

On the ift Wings a large oblique white 
fpot. Length 7 lines. 

5. Flavilatera Black. Wings brown ; 

ift pair dilated at the bafe. Antennae 
Ihort. Length 7 lines. 

6. Nigra Antenh?^ twice as long as 

the Body. Wings greenifli black. 

7. Longicornis Brownifh grey. An- 

tennas 3 times as long as the Body. Firft 
Wings fpotted with black. Legs whitifh. 
Length 3 lines, 

HEMEROBIUS. Mouth prominent. Palpi 
4. Wings deflexed. Antennae longer 
than the Thorax, taper, extended. 

1. Pedlinicornis. Golden Eye. Antennae length 

of the Body. Yellovvifh green. Wings 
much longer than the Body, diaphanous, 
with green veins. Minute black dots 
on the Abdomen. On plants. 

2. Chryfops Like the laft, except 

that the Antennae are {horter, and the 
veins of the Wings punftured with 
brown. Length 3 Imes. Geoff. 254. 2. 

3. Sex- 


5. Sexpunflatus Body greenifh 

brown. Antennae longer than the Body. 
Wrngs much longer than the Body, 
obliquely ere6t, diaphanous, with 6 
black fpots near the endi. Length in- 

4> Formicarium Brown. Head large, 

with yellow fpots, and .large lateral 

Eyes. Neck long. Thorax divided, 

and fpotted with yellow. Ab.lomen of 

8 rings. Wings larger than the body, 

diaphanous, with black veins, and 

brown fpots. Length i inch. 

PANORPA. Beak horny, cylindrical. 
Palpi 2. 

I. Communis Body dark brown, 

fides yellow. Wings the length of the 
Body, diaphanous, reticulated, and 
fpotted with brown. Tail of the male 
like that of the Scorpion. Length 7 
lines. Skips. In meadows. 


Wings 4, generally membraneous. Tail of 
the Females armed with a fting. 


CYNIPS. Antennse elbowed in the mid- 
dle. Second Wings ftiorter. Sting 
conic, inclofed between 2 valves, on 
the under fide of the Abdomen. Ab- 
M domen 


dpmen coinpre(red, acute beneath, and 
joined to the Thorax by a fliort pedicle. 

1. Glechomae Brown. Thorax 

hairy. In the tubercles on the leaves 
of ground ivy. 

2. Quercus baccarum Black. Bafe 

of the Antennae and Legs yellow. In 
the fmall tubercles on the under fide of 
oak leaves. 

3. Quercus foHi ' . . . Black. Thorax 

' ftriatcd. Legs grey. In the large tu- 

tubercles on oak leaves. 

4. Quercus petioli Head black. Body 

brown, polifhed. Extremity of the Ab- 
domen hairy. In the tubercles on the 
petiolus of oak leaves. 

5. Quercus gemmas. . ". .... Greenifli black, 

a little bronzed. Antennae and Legs 
orange. In the large imbricated galls 
on the extream buds of oak-trees, 

TENTHREDO. Abdomen of equal thick- 
nefs, and clofely united to the Thorax. 
Sting ferrated, between two valves. 
Second Wings (horteft. 

I. Femorata Antennae yellow, of 9 

joints. Black, hairy. A yellow femi- 
lunar membrane on the ill ring of the 
Abdomen. Wings diaphanous, the ex- 
terior border thick, brown. Length i 

2. Lutaea. 

Insects, hymenoptera. 163 

i. Lutaea Antennae clavaited, yellow, 

the lad joint black. Third, fourth, 
and fifth ring of the Abdomen brown, 
the reft black. Legs black, feet yel- 
low. Wings, with brov.'n veins, and 
brown pofterior margin. On Willows, 
Alder, Birch. 

3. Ruftica Black, except the upper 

lip, bafe of the Antenna:, 2 fhort lines 
on the Thorax, the point of the Thorax 
and the margin of the 2d, 5th and 6th 
fegment of the Abdomen, which are 
yellow. Wings brown. Legsyellowifli. 
Length half an inch. On Willows. 

4. Scrophulariae. Black. Margins 

of the fegments of the Abdomen yel- 
low, except the 2d and 3d. Upper 
lip yellow. Antennae red-brown. On 
the Thorax 2 yellow lines and 3 fpots. 
Wings and Legs tawny. Very like a 
Wafp. Length half an inch. On 

5. Rofae Head, Antennae, and Tho- 

rax black, with a yellow fpot on each 
fide of the latter. Abdomen orange. 
Wings tawny, with the exterior border 
black. Length 4 lines. On rofe-trees. 

6. Cynofbati Black, with 3 yellow 

fpots on the Thorax. Legs red-brown ; 
hind legs white in the middle, black 
above and below. Length 2 {- lines. 

7. Capracn; Yellow. Crown and 

Corfelet black. Antennae of 9 joints. 
M 2 Exterior 


Exterior border of the Wings black, 
thick. Length 4 lines. On Willows. • 

SIREX. Two ftrong Jaws. Palpi 2. An- 
tennae filiform, of more than 20 joints. 
Sting riged, ferrated. Abdomen united 
to the Thorax. Wings narrow, 2d 
pair ftiorteft. 

J. Gigas Antennae half the length 

of the Body, of 23 joints. Head black, 
with a yellow Ipot behind each eye. 
Thorax black, hairy. Abdomen of 9 

.[; fegments, black and yellow. Sting 

lodged in a groove under the Belly. 
Len2;th 1 7 lines. 

•. " 'ICHNEUMON. Jaws, without tongue. 
Antennae of more than 30 joints, long, 
filiform, vibrating. Sting within a bi- 
valv? Iheath. 

1. Ludlatoriiis Black. Upper lip, bafe 

of the Antennae, poi-nt of the Corfelet, 
2d and 3d fegment of. the Abdomen yel- 
low. Length near half an inch. 

2. Perfvaforius. ...... Black. Upper lip 

white. Thorax with 3 white lines on 
each fide. Target with 2 white fpots. 
Abdomen cylindrical, i ft fegment white, 
2d partly white, and 4 white fpots on 
the reft. Legs brown. 

3. Comitator Black. Middle of the 

Antenna; white. Length half an inch. 
In Wafps nefts. 

-- 4. Peregrinator, 


4. Peregrinator Black. Antenna 

white in the middle. Four firft feg- 
ments of the Abdomen brown-yellow, 
the laft white. Legs tawny. Winc;s 
brownifli. Length 3 I lines. 

5. Incubitor Head and Thorax black. 

Antennje brown, white in the middle. 
Legs and Abdomen tawny, black at 
the extremity. Length 3 lines. 

■6. Manifeftator Black. Antennae 

taper. Legs tawny. Sting twice as 
long as the Body. Length i inch. In 

7. Inculcator Black. Abdomen and 

Legs tawny. Pedicle between the Tho- 
rax and Abdomen long and fmall. A 
marginal fpot on the Wings. Abdo- 
men comprefTed and large towards the 
end. Length 2 lines. 

8. Pugillator Black. Antennas 

length of the Body. Second, third, and 
fourth fegmcnts of the Abdomen yel- 
low. Legs yellow. Length 6 lines. 

9. Rufpator Black. Legs tawny, 

hind thighs thick, with a fpine on the 
interior fide. Length 34. lines. 

10. Jaculator Black, flender, long. 

A white rinulet near the on'o-in of the 
Legs. Hind legs longer and thicker 
than the red. Abdomen curved. Sting 
longer than the Bodv. 


1\I 3 II. Luteus. 


11. Lutcus Tawny. Antennae lonr, 

taper. Abdomen curved, comprefled ; 
Pedicle long, flender. Sting fhort. A 
marginal brown fpot on the Wings. 
Length i inch. Geoff. 330. 

12. Ramidulus Very like the lafV. 

Thorax beneath, and the extremity of 
the Abdomen black. Length 8 lines, 

13. Bedeguaris Green-gold. An- 

tennae of 1 1 joints, elbowed, filiform. 
Legs pale. Sting longer than the Body. 
Length i-i. line. 

14 Puparum Blue, polifhed. Abdc^ 

men gold. Legs pale. Otherwife like 
the laft. Length 2 lines. In the chry- 
falis of Butterflies. 

15. Aphidum Black. Legs yellow. 

Antennce as long as the Body. Length 
I line. Breeds in the Body of Aphides, 
or Lice of trees and plants. 

j6. Globatus Black. Legs black 

and orange. Antennas length of the 
Body. A fmall marginal fpcck on 
the Wings. Length 2 lines. Breeds 
in the white filky balls, about i inch 
long, which are found frequently on 
different plants in meadows. 

17. Glomeratus Like the laft, except 

that the Antenna are not fo long, and 
the Legs are yellow. Breeds in the Car 
tcrpillars of the Cabbage Butterfly. 

18. PccTinicornis • . Green-brown- 

oran^ie. Antennse branched, yellowifh. 



Legs white. Length 24 lines. In the 
chryfalis of Butterflies. 

SPHEX. Jaws, without Tongue. An- 
tenna of 10 joints. Wings incumbent, 
not folded. Sting riged. 

1. Viatica Black. Antennae fliort, 

thick. 1 hree firft fegments of the 
Abdomen red -brown. Pedicle fhort. 
Length half an inch. Geoff. 354. n. 74. * 

2. Cribraria Black, with yellow 

ringlets on the Abdomen. Antennae 
Ihort, and turned backwards. Fore 
legs broad, with an appendix like a 

CHRYSIS. Thorax joined to the Abdomen 
by a fhort pedicle. Sting fimple. Wings 
not folded. Antennas filiform, of i 
long and 1 1 fliort joints. 

I- Ignita Blue-green-gold. Po- 

fterior part of the Abdomen polifhed 
copper, with 4 fpines on the laft feg- 
ment. Length 4 lines. In walls. 

VESPA. Jaws, without Trunk. Firfl: 
Wings folded. Sting concealed. Body 

I. Crabro. Hornet. Antennae tawny. Corfelet 
black in the center, edges brown. Seg- 
ments of the Abdomen black on the 
anterior part, yellov/ on the pofterior, 
with 2 black fpots on each. Length I 
inch. Builds in hollow trees. 

M 4 2. Vul- 


, ■: ' - . ■ 

2. Vulgaris? Comjnon Waff, Corfelet black, 

with 6 yellow fpots. Male : fcgments 
of the Abdomen 7, yellow, with a 
black triangle on each. Head yellow. 
Antennas long. Female: upper lip yel- 
low. Antennas fhort. Segments 6, 
with 2 lateral black fpots ox\ each j 
larger than the Male. 

3. Coarctata. Bmall JVafp, Antennae black, 

yellowifh at the bafe. Head black, 
with a yellow fpot between the An- 
tennas, and another at the bafe of the 
upper lip. Corfelet black with 2 yellow 
fpots. Each fegment of the Abdomen 
bordered with yellow j the ift infundi- 
buliform, 2d campanulate, and larger 
than the reft. Length half an inch. 

APIS. Jaws, with a Trunk bent down- 
wards. Antennae elbowed in the, mid- 
dle, I ft joint longeft. Wings plain, 
Body hairy. Abdomen conne(5led by 
a pedicle. 

1. Centuncularis. Black. Body 

long, narrow. Head, Thorax, and 
Legs covered with greyifli hair. Ab- 
domen above fmooth, beneath covered 
with tawny hair. Builds in old trees. 
Length 2\ lines. 

2. Rufa. Small Field Bee. Front white. Ab- 

domen fliort, covered above with tawny 
hair j Thorax with grey. 

■2. Mellifica, 


3. Mellifica. Common Hive Bee. Needs no de- 


4. Manicata. Black. Fore legs very 

hairy. Yellow fpots on each fide of 
the Abdomen, and 5 crotchets at the 
extremity. Length 7 lines. Very like 
a Wafp, but hairy. On flowers. 

5. Conica Thorax black, yellowKh 

at the roots of the Wings. Abdomen 
very acute ; margins of the fegments 
light yellow. Builds in the ground. 

(;>. Terreftris. Humble Bee. Black, very hairy, 
with a yellow belt on the Thorax. 
Anus white. Builds deep in the 

7. Subterranea. Great Humhle Bee. Black, very 
hairy. Trunk long and branched. 
Anus red-brown. 

FORMICA. An erefl: fquamula or fcale, 
betv/cen the Thorax and Abdomen. 
Females and Neutrals have a Sting con- 
cealed. Males and Females have Wings ; 
Neutrals none. 

Herculeana, Horfe Ant. Abdomen oval. 
Thio;hs red-brown. Much laro-er than 
the common Ant. 

Rufa Front and Thorax yellowifh ; 

the reft red-brown. Length 3 lines. 
In gardens, Geoff. 428, n. 4. 

3. Fufca 


3. Fufca. Common Jni. Brown, polifhed. Wings 

white, larger than the Body. Length 
2l- lines. Geoj^. 428. n. 5. 

4. Nigra Black. Wings brownifli 

on the upper part, and larger than the 
Body. Length li. line. Geoff\ 429. 
n. 6. 

5. Rubra. Little Red Ant. Clouded, with a 

black fpot under the Abdomen. Eyes 
black. Very fmall. 

VL D I P T E R A. 

Wings 2. 

OESTRUS. No Mouth, but 3 punclurcs, 
without Trunk or Beak. Antennae 
taper, proceeding from a lenticular 

I. Bovis. Breeze^ ox Gad Fly. Thorax yellow, 
with a black tranfverfe line between 
the Wings. Abdomen tawny, with 
fine black tranfverfe lines j laft fegment 
black. Wings white, with a brown 
tranfverfe line, and 3 brown fpots. 
Size of the large blue Fly. Depofits 
its eggs under the fkin on the backs of 

^".' Hamoridalis Body long, black, 

covered with tawny hair. Middle of the 
Thorax lefs hairy. Wings immaculate. 
Antennae very Ihort. Length half an 



inch. Depofits its eggs in the return 
of horfes, 

3. Ovis. Grey Fly. Spotted with black. Front 
pale yellow. Legs brownifh. Wings 
with fbort black, veins. Length h^lf 
an inch. Breeds in the frontz] Jhius of 

TIPULA. Head long. Palpi 4, curved. 
Trunk very fliort. 

I. Rivofa. ...... Brown-grey. Eyes black. 

Antennas feathered. Wings larger than 
the Body, white in the middle, with 
3 brown fpots near each margin. Tail 
of the Female bifid. Length i inch. 


Crocata Black fpotted with yel- 
low. Legs tawny, with black feet, 
and a black ring round the pofterior 
thighs. Wings tawny, with a mar- 
ginal brown fpot. Length 7 lines. In 

Oleracea. Long-Legs. Brown-afh colour. 
Antennas fimple. Wings brown at the 
exterior margin, and in the Male longer 
than the Body. Length near an inch. 

Hortorum Like the laft, but much 

leis. Wings faintly fpotted with white, 
and fprcad with thick black veins. 

Contaminata Black. Legs livid 

yellow, with black joints. Two yel- 
low fpots on the 2d, 3J, 4th, and 5th 
fcgments of the Abdomen. Five or fix 



dark fpots on the exterior margin of 
each Wing. Length half an inch. 

6. Lunata Afti-colour, with a whitifb 

line on each fide of the Abdomen, and 
a white femilunar fpot on the exterior 
margin of each Wing. Length 8 lines. 
In meadows. 

y. Cornicina Yellow. Antennae, 

Eyes and Palpi black. Three oblique 
black lines on the Corfelet. Legs very 
long. Length 6 lines. In meadows. 
Raj. 73. 7. 

8. Plumofa. Sea Tipula. Brown. Thorax 

greenifti. Eyes black. Fore legs longeft. 
Wings fhorter than the Abdomen. 
Length 3 lines. Refembles a Gnat. 

9. Littoralis Brown. Abdomen green, 

3 laft fegments brown. Wings dia- 
phanous. Fore legs long. Length 2 
lines. On trees. 

10. Motitatrix Pale green, or flefh- 

colour, with black fpots. Three lon- 
gitudinal black lines on the Corfelet. 
Legs black, white in the middle. Fore 
legs long. Length i line. 

IT. Monilis Black. Legs white, 

with 9 black rings. Wings white, with 
grey fpots, and a marginal black one. 
Length 2 lines. In meadows, and on 

12. Febrilis Black. Wings white, 

exterior border black. Antennae knotted, 
I Ihort. 


fhort. Wings crofs each other. Length 
4 lines. 

13. Hortulana Antennae knotted, 

{hort, black. Corfelet red, fmooth. 
Abdomen yellowifh. Wings diaphan- 
i ous, brov/nifti, exterior border black. 

.. Head very fmall. Male black, leis. 

14.. Phalaenoides Dark grey. Wings 

twice as long as the Body, fringed. 

,;;•*-.<: Antennae of ii beads^ perfoliated. 
Length i line. Scarce. 

f. - .J 

"• MUSCA. A foft flexible Trunk, with la- 
teral Lips at the end. No Palpi. 

1. Chamasleon Brown. Antennse 

'^ taper, broken. Eyes large. Abdomen 

nearly circular, with 3 yellow triangu- 
lar fpots on each fide, and one at the 
extremity. Legs yellow. Thighs brown. 
Length 6" Ijines. 

2. Hydroleon Antenna fhort, black. 

Eyes green, with a tranfverfe violet 
line. Thorax brown. Abdomen green, 
with a black longitudinal line in the 
middle. Wings very tranfparent. Legs 
yellowifh. Length 34- lines: 

3. Morio Black, hairy, v/ith white 

fpots on each fide of the Abdomen. 
Wings much larger than the Body, in- 
terior margin white. Length 3 — 6 lines. 
In gardens. 

4. Nsmprum Head grey. Eyes 

brown. Thorax covered with grey 



hair. Abdomen, of 4 fegments, above 
black, with 2 large yellow fpots on each 
fide, and 3 white tranfverfe lines. Legs 
brown. Wings tranfparent with a black 
,,. } marginal fpot. Length 41 lines. 

5.' T'enax. ...... Very like a Bee. Eyes 

brown. Front white. Thorax brown, 
hairy. Abdomen of 4 fegments, with 
a large yellow fpot on each fide. Mid- 
dle of the Wings tawny. Legs brown, 
Feet white. Length half an inch. 

6. Pyraftri Head yellow. Eyes large, 

brown. Corfelet dark green, with a 
few brown hairs. Abdomen above 
black, with 6 white fpots. Legs 
blackifti, with yellow joints. Li gar- 

7. Menthaftri Front yellow. Eyes 

brown. Corfelet greenifh black, with 
a yellow line on each fide. Abdomen 
of 5 fegments with 5 tranfverfe yellow 
lines. Length 4 lines. On flowers. 

8. Fiptens Black, fmooth. Long, 

narrow. Front and fides of the Tho- 
rax yellow. Abdomen of 4 fegments. 
v/ith 2 yellow fpots on each fide, l^wo 
hind Legs longer and ftronger, black 
with 2 yellow fpots, and a yellow ring 
on each thigh. On mint, &:c. Length 
3~ lines. 

9 Insnis Antennae, proceeding from 

the Trunk, of 5 globules, and a fili- 
form terminal joint. Thorax black, 
I polifijcd. 


poliflied. Abdomen above white, with 
2 black belts. Beneath black. Length 
2 lines. On flowers. . 

10. Pellucens Antennas feathered. 

Trunk lodged within the Beak. Eyes 
red-brown. Front yellow. Corfelet 
black. Abdomen, anterior half white, 
pofterior black. Wings tranfpar^nt, 
with a tranfverfe black line. Length 
half an inch. On rofe-trees. 

J I. Caefar Green-gold. Legs black. 

Eyes reddifli. Length 3 lines, in woods 
and gardens. 

12. Cadaverina. - Eyes reddifh. Head 

.i\:,:c. an^i Thorax blue. Abdomen green- 
gold. Length 2 lines. . 

13. Vomitoria. Blue Flejh Fly. Eyes brown. 

Plumes of the Antennse branched. 
Thorax black. Abdomen dark blue, 
large. Legs black. Length near half 
an inch. Raj. I'ji. 

14. Carnaria. Common FleJJ) Fly. Black, with 

4. longitudinal grey lines on the Corfe- 
let. Abdomen of 5 fegments, chequered, 
with black and grey. Anus reddifh. 
Legs black. Length 4 lines. 

l>i. Domeftica. Commcn Hmfe Fly. Black, 
with 5 longitudinal grey lines on the 
Corfelet. Abdomen of 4 fegments, 
chequered. Length 3 lines. 



* Antenncs with a lateral hair, 

16. Cellaris Yellow-brown. Ab- 

domen of 6 fegments. Wings large^ 
with 3 longitudinal veins. Length li. 
inch. Frequently found de^d in wine 
and vinegaf. 

17. Putris Black, fmooth. Wings 

whitifh. Eyes brown. Size of a Gnat. 
Breeds in cheefe and dung. 

18. Stercoraria Front yellowifh. 

Eyes reddifh. Bafe and exterior border 
of the Wings yellowifli, with a brown 
fpot and tranfverfe line near the middle^ 
Male grey, covered, with tawny down* 
Length 3 lines. On dung. 

19. Vibrans Black, cylindrical. 

Head red. Abdomen obtufe. Wings 
white, with a black fpot near the ex- 
tremity. Legs of the Female yellow. 
Length ^~ lines. Wings conftantly vi- 
brating. On trees. 

20. Flava Yellow. Eyes black. 

Wings white, with obfcure yellow veins. 
Length i line. On flowers, 

21. Solftitialis Head yellow. Eyes 

brown. Thorax grey. Abdomen black. 
Legs tawny. Wings whiti'fh, with 3 
brown lines, and a fmall notch in the 
exterior margin. Length 2 lines. On 


in SECTS D I P T ERA. 1 y^ 

'tABANUS. Antenna conic, of 4 fer- 
ments. Trunk flefhy^ terminated by 
2 lips. Palpi, one on each fide of the 

i. Bovinus. Great Horfe Fly. Head and Tho- 
rax ^rey. Eyes dark brown. Abdo- 
men yellowifl), with a triangular v/hite 
fpot in the middle of each fegment. 
Legs yellow. Wings dufky with brown 
veins. Length i inch. 

2. Pluvialis. . Brown-grey. Eyes 

green, ivith brown rays. Corfelet 
brown, with 7 longitudinal grey lines. 
Wings dotted with white, and a margi- 
nal black fpot. Legs alternately brown 
and white. Length 4 lines. In mea- 

3. Cscutiens. Head brown. Eyes 

green and brown, with black fpots. 
Corfelet brown, with grey lines. Ab- 
domen above yellow, with triangular 
brown fpots. Legs yellow. Wings 
white, with black and brown fpots. 
Length 4- lines. 

CULEX. Antennas feathered. Trunk, 9^ 
long flender fyphon. 

I. Pipiens, Common Gnat. Grey. Abdomen 
of 8 fegments. 

?.. Bifurcatus Brown-grey. Beak 

forked. Twice as big as the laft. In 
watery places. 

•i N ^3- Puli- 


3. Pulicaris Brown. Wings white, 

with 3 brown fpots. Length ^ line. 
In gardens in the Spring. 

CONOPS. Trunk long, jointed. 

1. Calcitrans. ...... .Differs from the Com- 

mon Fly, in having a hard (harp Trunk, 
with which it pricks our legs in Au- 
,,.,.,, - tumn. 

2. Macrocephaja . Black and tawny 

variegated, fomewhat like a Wafp^ 
Antennae clavated, but pointed. Wings 
brown, clouded. Length haJf an inch.. 
In meadows. j vV 

ASILUS. Triink horny, long, ftraight, bi- 

T;'''Crabroniformis. Hornet Fly. Trunk and 
.f)y>:- Eyes black. Corfejet convex. Three 
firft fegments of the Abdomen black, 
the other 4 yellow, hairy, ftiarp, and 
brown at the extremity. Length i 
inch. In wet meadows. 

2. Forcipatus. ...... Grey, hairy. Abdo- 

men long, pointed. Sides yellowifh. 
Length 6 lines. In gardens, &c. 

3. Tipuloides Trunk pale, long, 

curved downwards. Corfelet afh-co- 
lour, with 3 longitudinal black lines. 
Wings of the Male tawny ; of the Fe- 
f^l male, white, tranfparentt Legs long. 

Length 4 lines. 

I 3. Morio. 


4. Morio Black, fmooth. Legs 

tawny. Length 6 ^ lines. In wet 

BUMBYLIUS. Trunk taper, very long, 
fharp, betweQn two horizontal valves. 

I. Major. Hutnble-Bee Fly. Body fhoit, thick, 

covered with thick grey down. Wings 

. ^ large, black at the b-^e. Antennx 

ofi)^ r black, bent in the middle. Legs long, 

/lender, black. Length 4. or 5 lines. 

Sucks flowers, without reding on them. 

1. Medius. i Body vellowifh, white 

at the extremity. Wings, with brown 
fpots. Hovers in the air like a Hawk, 
and darts with great celerity. 

3. Minor Wings clouded, without 

fpots. In Cain- wood; 

HIPPOBOSCA. Trunk bivafved, cylin- 
drical, obtule. Antennre like a fingle 
hair. Feet with cl.''.ws. 

1. Equina Broad, flat, fcaly. Head 

yellow. Eyes brown. Thorax and 
Abdomen ydlowifh, with brown waves. 
Wings crofs each other, nnd are much 
larger than theBodv. Length 2^ lines. 
Fallens on Dogs and Cattle. 

2. Hlrundinis , . Head yellow. Tho- 

rax darker. Abdomen dufky, broad, 
flat. Wings narrow, (hort. Legs long, 
with 6 claws. In Svv.tllows nefts. 

N 2 VIL A P- 


Vn. A P T E R A. 

No Wings. 

LEPISMA. Legs 6, broad and fcaly ar 
their origin. Palpi 2, moveable. An-, 
tennae filiform. Tails 3. Body fcaly. 

1. Saccharina Body long, of 9 or 

10 fegments, diminiflirng from the 
Head to the Tail. Silvery lead colour. 
Somewhat like a fifli. Ijength 4 lines. 
In the joints of falh windows that are 
wet and feldom opened. 

PODURA. Legs 6^. Eyes 2, compofed 
of 8 fmall ones. Tail forked, elaftic, 
inflexed. Antenna ^ongj taper. 

1. Viridis Round, light green. Head 

yellowilh. Eyes black. Antennae el- 
bowed in the middle. Thorax very 
fmall. An angle on each fide of the 
Abdomen, Length i line. On plants 
in April. 

2. Plumbea Polifhed lead-colour. 

Tail almoft as long as the Body. Length 
1 line. On trees, folitary. 

3. Villofa Yellow-brown, ftreaked 

and fpotted with black. Antennae of 
4 joints. Head and Thorax hairy. 
Length 2 lines. On ftones. 

4. Aquatics. 


4. Aquatica Black. Antennae al- 

moft as long as the Body. Length 
half a line. Numerous on the leaves 
of Aquatic plants, 

TERMES. Legs 6. Eyes 2. Antennse 
taper. Mouth with 2 Jaws. 

r. Pulfatorium Antennas length of 

the Body, flender. Eyes yellowifh. On 
each fegment of the Abdomen, a red- 
difli fpot on each fide. Lefs than the 
common Loufe. Generally thought to 
be the Death-watch, but Geoftroy is 
pofitive of the contrary. 

PEDICULUS. Legs 6. Eyes 2. Mouth 
producing a fting. Antennae length 
of the Thorax. Abdomen dcprefl'ed, 
rounded, fimple. 

1. Humanus. Common Loufe. 

2. Pubis. Crab Loufe. Brown. Broad and (hort. 

3. Bovis White, with 8 tranfvcrfc 

J. tawny-red lines above, and 5 beneath. 

4. Vituli Larger than the laft. Legs 

fhort, thick, grey. Abdomen lead-co- 
lour, broad, pointed. 

5. Corvi Grey. Head fmall, black. 

Antennae turned backwards. Eight 
black lines on each fide the Abdomen. 
Length i line. 

N 3 6. C;. 


l8'2 INSECTS. A P T E R>A; 

6. Gallinae; . . . ... Head white, rount^e^ 

before. Thorax large, angular. Ab- 
donien white, with a black border. 

7. Colunibas flender, whitifh j fides 

red-brown. Length i line. 

PULEX. Legs 6. Eyes 2. Antennae fili- 
form. Trunk taper, inflexed, cor^r 
cealing a fting. Abdomen comprefTed. 

I. Irritans. Common Flea. 

ACJ^ARUS. Legs 8. Eyes 2, lateral, 
Tentaculae 2, jointed. 

1. Reduvius. Sheep Lonje, or Tick. Flat, oval, 

with a round fpot on the back, Fre- 
quently found alive in wool, a long 
time aftef it is ftiorn, 

2. Ricinus. Dog Tick. Oval. Trunk long. 

Livid. Head and Thorax fmall. Op 
the anterior part of the Abdomen an 
oval, brown, glofiy, raifed fpot. Length 

3. Paflerinus Oval. Brown. Legs 

pale, Length i line. Very like the 
laft. On many fpccies of fmall birds. 

4. Telarius Tawny. A brown fpot 

on each fide of the Abdomen. Ac- 
cording to GeoftVoy, this infecl fpins a 
web on the bark of trees, generally on 
the north lide, from top to bottom of 
the trunk ; which web being difpcrled 
by the wind, covers the fields with 



thofe innumerable threads which fome 
Naturalifts have miftaken for conclenfed 

5. Aquaticus Scarlet. Oval. Length 

il line. On ftagnant water. Swims 

6. Kolofericeus. Scarlet Spider. Like the laft. 

On the ground, and on plants, ''j. I k 

7. Coleoptratorum. Beetle Tick, Tawny. Anus 

whitiih. Length i line. 1 have found 
2 or 300 on the Belly of one Beetle. 

8. Longicornis Head fharp. Abdorren 

rounded. Antennae like Crab's-claws. 
Abdomen deep red. Legs paler. Length 
i. line. Under flones, &c. 

PHALANGIUM. Legs 8. Eyes 2. 'Ab- 
domen rounded. 

1. Opilio. Long-legged Spider. Antennas an- 
gular. Palpi 2, Jong, like Antennae. 
Legs very long. Eyes on the top of 
the Head or Thorax. Head and Tho- 
rax both in one. Abdomen, above 
brown, beneath white. 

2 Cancroidcs. Scorpion Tick. Antennne cheli- 
form. Thorax brown. Abdomen trani- 
verfely ftriated. On garden pots, and 
fometimes in houfes. 

ARANEA. Spiders. Legs 8. Eyes 8. 

J. Diadema Abdonien gibbous, rcd- 

N 4 brown. 


brown, with \vhite fpots in the form of 
a crqfs. 

2. Cucurbitina . Abdornen gibbous, 

green-ydlow, with black fpots. Ua 
fruit trees. Raj, 20. 5. 

3. Domeflica. ..;... Abdomen pale bro\yn» 

with 5 black fpots. Somewhat hairy. 

4. Labyrinthica. Thorax grey, with 

3 longitudinal lines. Abdomei) brown, 
with a longitudinal pinnated line. 
Tail forked. Large. In fields. 


Hy^, Redimita - . . Abdomen oval, pale 

yellow, with a crimfon oval crown or 
ring on the Back. Legs long, white, 
tranlparent. In gardens. 

6. Montana Abdomen with grey 

fpots ; fides white. Thorax and Legs 
pale. Fore feet long, extended. 

7. Ex^enfa Abdomen long, grecn- 

filver. Legs livid, long, extended. 

^. Holoiericea Brown-livid, hz'iry. 

Abdomen ovato-oblong, with 2 trun- 
cated appendices, and 2 yellow tubercles 

9. Se.spciilata Eyes only 6. Yel- 

lov/ifh, downy. Abdomen fub-cylin- 
cricil, with quadrangular black fpots 
on the anterior part, and yellow line^ 
on the fides. Large. On walls, &c. 

10. Scenica Blacky covered \\ ith 

fhort filvery hair. Abdon-.cji fub-cyiin- 
flrical, with 3 oblique white lines on 



each fide. Legs fhort, hairy, black 
and white. Skips. On old walls and 
windows. Weaves no web. 

^I. Aquatica Pale brown. Abdo- 
men oval. Jaws black, large, ftrono-. 
Length 5 lines. In lakes. Lives and 
hunts at the bottom of the water, de- 
vouring its food within a globule of air 
formed by itfelf. Vide Geoffi-oy^ 645. 7. 

|2. Viatica^ Thorax black-brown. 

Abdomen large, yellow, with 2 brown 
ipots. Four fore legs long, black and 
yellow ; 4 hind legs fhort. Refembles 
a Crab. Moves flow. Length 2~ lines. 

CANCER. Legs 10 ; firft pair claws, or 
pincers. Tail foliated. 

f. Pagurus. Common Crab. Tail fhort. Ends 
of the claws black. 

2, Aianeus. Sea Spider. Tail fliort. Thorax 
hairy, tuberculated, oval. Beak bifid. 
Claws flender. Mer. Pin. 192. 

«. Bernhardus. Bernard the Hermit. Tail long» 
foft. Right claw brgeft. Length 2.1. 
inches. Lodges in the deferted habita- 
tion of Welks and other fheil-hfh. 
Dale H^nv._4.^6. . JHer. Pin. 192. 

^. Gammarus. Lohfter, 

5. Aftacus. Crayjijh. 

^. Squiila, Shrimp. 

7. Pulcx 


7. Piilex. Si-a Flea. Yellow. Eyes black. An- 
tenna; 4. Body of 12 fegments. Legs 
14. Length 7 lines. 

S. Salinus Body oblong, larger than 

a Loufe. Eyes dillant, lateral, pedun- 
culated. Antennae taper, fhorter than 
the Body. Tall filiform, the length of 
the Body. Legs jo pair. In the Li- 
mington fait water. 

MONOCULUS. Body covered with a 
cruft, or fhell. Feet made for fwim- 

I. Apus Greenifh. Eyes 2, on the 

crown, contiguous. Body covered with 
2 (hells, or fcales. Tail fcaly, with 2 
long hard briftles. Length 18 lines. 
In fifh ponds and ditches. 

J. Pulex. ...... Greenifh red. One Eye 

in the middle of the forehead. Snout 
pointed, and bent downwards. An- 
tennas forked, fubdivided. Body com- 
prefled and covered with a firm {hell, 
Tail bifid, fubdivided. Very minute. 
Frequent and numerous in ftagnant 

3. Quadricornis Grey-brown. One 

Eye. Antennas 4. Body diminiflies 
towards the Tail, which is long and 
bifid, with 3 ox 4 ftrong hairs on each 
fide. A bag of eggs on each fide of 
the Tail. Length half a line. 

4. Con" 

a » S EC T S. . A P T E R A. 187 

1^. Conchaceus •. . Inclofed in a bi- 
valve a{h-coloured Shell, from the aper- 
ture of which it puts forth a number 
of capillary Antennze, which it retradl.s 
when taken out of the water. Length 
- li line. In ponds and ditches. 

ii.i. -' I d* 
ONISCUS. Legs" i^^ Antennas taper. 

Body oval. 

J. Afilus. Sea Lou/f. Whitilh. Abdomen co- 
vered with 2 3hellsj Tail femioval 

^. Entomon. Sen JVccd-Lctifei White. Eyes 
, black.- Convex above, benejith flat, 

margin acute. Antennai 4. Four hind 
.,. pair of legs largeft, hairy. Body of 7 

fegments. Length li- line, On the 


3. Aquaticus Afh-colour, An- 
tennae taper, of 3 joints. Body of 7 
fegments. Tail roundifla, with 2 bifid 
appendices. Hind legs longeit. Length 
2 lines. In clear fprings. 

,4. ^fcllus. Millepes, or IFcod-Loufe. Oval. 
Tail obtufe, with 2 undivided briftles. 
Various as to colour. Length 5 lines. 

5. Armadillo Black, oval, bror.d, po- 

liihed. Body of 10 fegments, the 
edges of which are white, l^ail ob- 
tule, without appendices. On being 
touched forms itfclf into a perl. Under 


j88 I N"S E C T S. A P T E RiA.' 

SCOLOPENDRA. Feet not lefs than 24. 
Antennas taper. Palpi 2, jointed. Body 

1. Lagura Feet 24. Body oval, 

brown. Head black. On each fide g 
tufts of hair. Tail a white pencil. 
Length 1^ line. Under the bark of 
old trees. 

2. Forficata Feet 30. Segments 9. 

Tawny, fmooth. Antennae of 42 joint*. 
Length I inch» Runs fwift. Under 

3. Ele6lrica Feet 140. Very flat. 

Tawny, with a black longitudinal line 
on the Back. Segments 70. Joints of 
the Antennae 17. Shines in the dark. 

JULUS. Feet, on each fide double the 
number of the fegments of the Body. 
Antennas beaded. Palpi 2, jointed. 
■ ;, Body femicylindrical. 

J. Terreftris Feet 200. Black, po- 

lifhed. Length 5 lines. Under floiies^ 
Geoff". 679. 

2. Sabulofus Feet 240. Afl;-coIour. 





No diftin£l Head, no Ears, no Nofe j in general, 
*, no Eyes, no Legs. 

L I N T E S T I N A. 
- iNaked, fimple, without Limbs. 

^•"^'tJORDIUS. Filiform, equal, fmooth. 

1. Aquaticus Like a horfe-hair. Ex- 
tremities black. In water and in clay. 

T. Lacuftris. Piano- fpiral, convoluted, 

fmall at each end. In the liver of the 

ASCARIS. Cylindrical, filiform, fmall at 
. • the ends. 

3'. Vermicularis Pale red. Mouth 

tranfverfe. Tail much fmailer than the 
Head. Length half an inch. At the 
* * bottom of lakes, and in the inteftines 
of children and horfes. 

.. ■ 2. Lura- 


2. Lumbricoides , . Tail fomewhat an- 
gular. Length of the Earth- Worm^ 
In human inteftines. » ,^ 

LUMBRICUS. Cylindrical, annulated, 
rough.. A broad fiefliy belt. Lateral 
pores. ... 

1. Terreftris. Earth or Dew TVorm. Segments 

100; 26 to 30 form the belt. Two 
fpines on each fide of each fegment, 
except the belt, all turned backward. 
Three pores on each fide of the belt, 2 
on the 1 2th, and 2 on the 14th feg- 
ment. In the ground, .and in the hu- 
man inteftines. 

2. Marinus. Sea JVorm, From the middle for- 

ward are 14 or 15 fegments, each com- 
pofed of 4 or 5 fmall ones. On each 
fide of thefe larger fegments are 2 tu- 
bercles, with a fmall brittle in the' 
center of each. Pofterior half fmooth, 
with irregular ringlets, and minute, 

FASCIOLA. Flat, with a terminal and. 
ventral pore. 

1. Hepatica Gourd Worm. Oval, (harp before. 
A whitiih longitudinal line on the Back, 
with an oblong fpot in the middle. Re- 
fembles the feed of the common Gourd. 
In ditches, rivulets, and in the liver of 

2. In- 


2. Inteftinalis Long, narrow, fur- 

rowed longitudinally, not jointed. In 
the inteftines of fifhes. 

3. Barbata White, oblong, fize of 

a Cucumber-feed. Mouth with tranf- 
verfe papilize. In the inteftines qf the 
Sepia lolrgo. 

• .. HIRUDO. Subcylindrical, truncated at 
each end. 

T. Medicinalis. Common Leech. Smooth. De- 
prefled, blackifh, with 6 yellow lines 
on the back. In fliallow waters. 

2. Sanguifuga, Harfe Leech. Brown, deprefTed j 

lateral margin yellow. In frefh water. 

3. Geometra Cylindrical. Black- 

brown. Extremities dilated. Length 
half an inch. In frefh water. 

4.. Muricata. Sea Leech. Covered with fmall 
tubercles. Inthefea. Dale Harw. t^c^-^. 

MYXINE. Cylindrical, with a ridge be- 
neath. Mouth. terminal. Jawspinnated, 
with I tooth in the upper, and feveral 
in the under Jaw. No Eyes. 

I. Glutinofa Back black-green. 

Sides yellowifii. Belly white. Sir.e of 
the Dev/ Worm, and annulated. h\ 
the Sea. 




Simple, naked, without Shell, but not enr- 
tirely without Limbs. 

LIMAX. Oblong. A common aperture' 
on the right fide. Tentacdla 4, above 
the Mouth. 

1. Ater. Black Snail. Back furrowed. Belly 

grey. Length 3 inches. In moitt 
ihady places. 

2. Rufus. Red Snail. Back red-brown. Belly 

yellow. At the foot of mountains. 

3. Maxrmus. Large Grey Snailj Deeply fur- 

rowed, ftriatedj and fpotted with brown. 
Largeft of this genus. In' thick woods^ 

4. Agreftis. Small Grey Snail. Immaculate. 

Length half an inch. On Cabbagesj&c, 

5. Flavus. Jmber Snail, With white fpots. 

Length i~ inch. On plants. 

APHRODITA. Body oval, with many' 
Legs. Mouth terminal, cylindrical, re- 
traiSlile, with 2 taper tentacula. 

I. Aculeata. Sea Moufe. Covered with hair, 
mixt with fharp prickles ; that on the 
fides, blue-green-gold. Legs 72, with 
a fin to each foot. Length 4 inches. 
Breadth 14. Dale Harw. 394. Phil. 


Vermes, m o l l u s c a* 19 j 

Tranf. N". 225. p. 405. Found at 
* Dublin in the ftomach of a Cod. 

NEREIS. Body long, with lateral pencil- 
led Tentacula. Mouth terminal, un- 

i. Nodliluca Segnrents 23. Scarce 

vifible to the naked eye. Shines by 
night in the fea, fo as to make the wa- 
ter feem on fire. 

2. Acuftris Size of a fmall Briftle, 

pellucid, as if jointed, with a Foot on 
each fide of each joint. In clayey wa- 

LERNiEA. Body oblong, cylindrical ; 
Tentacula like arms or branches, with 
which it fixes to other animals. 

1. Cyprinacea Body iflues from 2 

{heath; Tentacula 4, 2 of which are 
luuated. Length half an inch. In 
filh ponds, adheres to the fides of Carp. 

2. Salmoneai ...... Body obovate. Tho- 

rax obcordate. Tentacula 2, filiform, 
as long as the Body. Ovaria at the end 
of the Abdomen, granulous, and as 
large as the whole Body. Adheres to 
the gills of Salmon. 

3. Afellina Body lunated. Tho- 

rax cordate. Tail double, cylindrical. 
In the gills of Cod, &c. 



SEPIA. Body fleftiy, like a vagina or 
fheath, receives the Neck or Breaft. 
Arms 8. Tentacuia 2, very long. 
Mouth terminal, horny. Eyes ? be- 
neath the Arms. 

1. Officinalis. Ink or Cuttle Fljh. Arms pointed 

and covered on the inner fide with tu- 
bercles. Tentacuia broad at the end, 
and longer than the Body. Length 6 
inches. In the fea. 

2. Loligo. Sea Sleeve. Body angular, and point- 

ed at the bafe. Arms narrower than in 
the former. Length 8 inches. Dale 
Harw. 392. 

MEDUSA. Body gelatinous, orbicular, 
deprefied. Mouth beneath, central. 
Inhabit the fca. 

1. Cruciata Margin entire. In the 

center a white crofs. Diameter i inch. 

2. Aurita. Sea Nettle. Convex above, concave 

beneath. Margin fr-ingcd. On the 
under Side 4 arched cavities furrounded 
by an opake line, compofed of more 
than 20 dots. On the upper furfacc 
pale veins. 

3. Capillata. Sea Lungs. Orbicular, convex. 

Margin regularly divided into 16 feg- 



•V ]E It* »t g" s." *r E s f a: (ft a: 195 

ASTERIAS. Form of a ftar. DeprcfTed. 
Mouth in the center. 

1,. Ruber^s. Five fingered Star FiJJ). Reddifli 
■ " *' white. ' Above cOver(?'d With fnft fpines. 

v/lj nU }^eneath- a ^quadruple row of papillae. 
Diameter 5 inches. Dale Harw. 436. 
.f'^ ■ Mer. Pm. igi. Foffiie,. called 5^w^- 
ov'.-i borough Star Stone. 

2'. Ophiura. . ., . : .- . Body, in proportion, 
broader, and rays, which are aifo 5 in 

' ' • nLLmbec, much fhorcer than in the laft 
fpecies. XXj/i? /fbrw. 436. 

^^n ECHINUS. Body roundifli, covered with, 
i» . a bony crult, with moveable fpines. 

?• Mouth beneath, of 5 valves. 

I. Efculentus. Sea Hedge- hog. Shell hem.ifphe- 
rical, bluifh-red. Ten feries of am- 
bulacra or fpines, with white points. 

x! ■ Apertures roundifti. Anus vertical. 

Diameter 1 4 inch. On the coaft near 

! Scarborough. 

2» Spatagus. Sea Egg: Oval, comprefTed* 
From the center 4 radii, compofed of 
4 feries of perforated puniStures. Aper- 

, ture of the Anus beneath. On the 

Yorklhire coaft. 

/: ■ 


Inclofed in a hard fhell, of one or more 
parts or valves, ,^nd moveable by the animal. 



LEPAS. Shell of many unequal valves fixed 
at the bafe. Animal Triton. 

1. Balanus Shell conic, furrowed, 

fixed. Valves 4, pointed. On the 

2. Balanoides. Small Balanus^ or Jcorn fijh. 

Grey. Valves 6, flriated, obtufe. Size 
of a nut. Frequently adheres to Oi- 

3. Tintinabulum Shell conic > 

rough, obtufe, fixed. Like the laft> 
but thicker. 

4. Anatifera. Barnacle. Shell comprefled, fmooth, 

of 5 valves, 2 of vi^hich are larger than 
the reft. Fixed generally to old w^ood 
in the fea, by a pedicle, like a gut, a- 
bout I inch in length. 

PHOLAS. Shell bivalve, divaricated, vi^ith 
fmaller irregular accefiary valves at the 
hinge, which is recurved and connected 
by a cartilage. Animal Afcidia. 

1. Dadylus. Puhlock. Shell rough, ftriated 

longitudinally and tranfverfely j fhape 
irregular, the hinge nearer the end, 
which extends into a kind of beak. 
Length 2 1 inches. Breadth i 4.. In 
ftones, particularly in the Ludus Hel- 
montii. Shines by night. 

2, Candidus Shell oblong, rough, 

ftriated both ways, white, diaphanous, 



thin, fragile. Hinge neareft one end. 
Length li inch. 

3. Crifpata Shell divided tranf- 

verfely by a deep furrow ; one half gib? 
bous, ftriated, rough, with a long beak, 
the other plain, fmooth, with a thin 
edge. Hinge with a curved tooth. 
Open at either end. Length 1 4 inch. 
Breadth li. Frequent on the York- 
ftiire coaft. 

MYA. Shell bivalve, open at one end. 
Hinge with a broad thick tooth, not let 
into the oppofite valve. 

1. Truncata Shape irregular, fome- 

what oval. Hinge obtufe. Length i^- 
inch. Breadth i inch. Often found 
in a foffile ftate. In the fea. 

2. Piflorum Oval. Pale green. 

Somewhat pointed. Hinge very near 
the obtufe end. Length i i inch; 
Breadth 4- inch. In rivers. 


2. Margaritifera Oval, black, thick, 

heavy. Tooth of the hinge, fmooth, 
conic. Within whitifh, with a dou- 
ble cicatrice. Length 54- inches. 
Breadth 2~. In rivers. 

SOLEN. Shell bivalve, oblong, open at 
each end. Hinge with a fmglc, or 
double, conic bent tooth, not let into 
the oppofite valve. Animal Jfcida. 

O 3 ' I. Sili*. 


1. Siliqua. . . . T . . . Brown, linear, ftrait, 

truncated at each end. "Striated botli 
waysj and a diagonal line. Hinge at 
one angle, connedled by a membrane. 
Length 6 inches. Breadth not quite 
an inch'. Frequent on the fliore near 

2. Enfis Differs from the laft in be- 

ing much lefs, and a little curved. 

TELLINA. Bivalve. In the fore part of 

one lliell a convex, in the other a con- 
cave fold. Hinge of three teeth. Ani- 
mal, Tethys. 

1. Trifafciata Oval, comprelTed, 

rediiifli-virhite, vi^ith 3 crimfon rays from 
the hinge to the circumference. Pubes 
wrinkled. Vulva ovata. Length 1 inch. 
iBreadth |. inch. 

2. Carnaria. « . -. . . . Suborbicular, fmooth, 

recldifh- white, obliquely ftriated. With- 
in red. Length I inch. Breadth |.inch. 
Dale Hafiv. 387. 

3. Cornea Globous, fmooth, horn 

colour, with a tranfverfe furrow. Size 
of a large pea. In pools of freih water, 

CARDIUM. Bivalve. Valves equal. 
Hinge with middle teeth alternate, 
lateral teeth remote, and let into a 
groove in the oppohtc valve. Shape of 
a heart. Animal Tethys. 
5 I. Echi- 


I. Echinatutn White, with about 

20 ridges, and a row of curved fpines 
on each ridge. Breadth i-i inch. 
Length fomewhat lefs. On the York- 
fliire coaft. 

2* Edule. Common Cockle. Ridges 26. 

MACTRA. Bivalve, Inequilateral, equi- 
valved. Middle tooth of the hinge com- 
plicated with an adjacent groove. Ani- 
mal, Tethys. 

I, Solida Opaque, fubrotund. One 

valve convex, the other a little com- 
prefled. Yellowifh white. Concentric 
curved tranfverfe lines on the furface. 
Margin entire. Breadth i-i inch. On 
the Yorkfliire coaft. 

DONAX. Bivalve. Anterior margin very 
obtufe. Hinge with 2 teeth. Animal, 

a, Trunculus Within purple. Mar- 
gin ferrated. Hinge neareft the fmall 
end. Strise from the hinge, eroded by- 
deep concentric tranfverfe lines. From 
the hinge to the oppofite margin half an 
inch. Breadth not quite i inch. On 
the coaft near Scarborough. 

VENUS, Bivalve. Anterior margin in- 
cumbent. Hinge with 3 teeth. Vul- 
va y Anus diftinil. 

O 4. I. Merce- 


i, Mjrccnaria. ..,.,;• Heart-fhaped, thick, 
ponderous, fmooth, with a few tranf- 
verfe ftriac. Margin ferrated. Internal 
margin purple. Liji Angl. t. 8. f. 33. 

2. Borealis Subrotund, thin, fra- 
gile and very fhallow. Seven or eight 
concentric tranfverfe curve lines, di- 
ftant from each other. Diameter i-y 

OSTREA. Bivalve, inequivalve. Hinge 
without teeth, with an oval cavity. 
Vulva anufue nulla. Tranfverfe ftriae. 

I. Maxima. Large Scallop, Longitudinal ridges 
14. One valve a little convex, the 
other plane. Auricles equal, re<ftan- 
gular, ftriated. Reddifti, clouded. 
Diameter about 4 inches. On the Irifli 
coaft, and near Portland. 

7., Obliterata. Small Scallop. Outfide fmooth, 
purpiifh red ; infide yeilowifti purple, 
with 24 longitudinal double radii. 
Length i~ inch. Dale Harw. 383* 
On the beech near Laijdguard fort. 

3. Edulis. Common Oijler, 

ANOMIA. Bivalve j one gibbous at the 
bafe, the other plain, and lefs. Hinge 
without teeth. Foflile in this king- 

I. Gryphus Oblong, fmooth. The 

under fhell is confiderably curved up- 
5 wards 


wards near the hinge. Length 2^ 

2. Pedlen. ; . . . ^ . Semiorbicular. On one 

valve many longitudinal ftriae. Thefe 
(hells, or imprefHons of them, are found 
in black ftones in coal mines. Breadth 
1 inch. 

3. Truncata Auriculae large. Lon- 

gitudinal ftriae extreamly fine and nu- 
merous. Hinge ftraight. Length half 
an inch ; breadth |. In limelt-ones. 

4. Crifpa. ....... Subtriangular, rough, 

plicated, the middle fold larger and 
deeper than the reft. On one fide a 
kind of beak or point. Diameter i inch. 
In bluifli lime-ftone, in Craven and 
other parts. 

5. Lacunofa Size of a large hazel- 

nut, of 3 lobes. Valves plicated at the 
apex. One valve with deep cavities, 
tridentate at the apex. 

6. Terebratula Rounded at one end, 

and fharp at the other. One valve with 
3 folds, the other with 2. Length near 
1 inch. 

7. Spinofa With fpines as long as 

the (hell. 

MYTILUS. Bivalve, rough, generally 
fixed to the Bijfus. Hinge without 
teeth, diftind, with a fubulated hollow 
longitudinal line. 

I. Litho- 


I, Lithophagus "White, glofly, fof- 

iil, filled with a yellow earthy ftone. 
Length 2 inches. Thick half an inch. 

1. Rugofus Rounded at one end, 

and truncated at the other. A line pa- 
rallel with the margin. Length i inch. 
Breadth half an inch. 

3. Edulis. Common Mufcle. 

4. Cygneus Oval. Outfide green- 

ifh, within filver^white. Both valves 
very thin, and in fome degree tranf- 
parent. Length 5 inches. Breadth 24* 
In many lakes in the North, Liji, 
Angl, afp, 9. t. I. f. 3. 

CYPRiEA. A fingle fhell, involuted, 
oval, obtufe, fmooth. Aperture denr 
tated, longitudinal. Animal Limax, 

). Stolida. Northumberland G owry . Grey, with 
quadrangular brown fpots on each fide. 
Siz,e of a Sparrow's egg. 

BUCCINUM. A fingle fiiell, fniral, gib- 
bous. Aperture oval, ending in a 
dexter cavity. Lip expanded oh th^ 
inner fide. Animal Limax. 

I. Lapillus. Larger Englijh Purple F'ljh. Whit- 
ifh, thick, ponderous. Volutions 5. 
Aperture not large. Lips thick, fer- 
rated. Beak fiiort, notched. Length 
j^ inch. On the fhore. 

2. Un- 


2. tJndatum Thick, ponderous ; 

outfide reddifh btown ; within reddifti 
white. Volutions 7, longitudinally 
waved, tranfverfely ftriated. Aperture 
large. Length 3 inches. 

MUREX. A fingle fhell, fpiral, rough. 
Aperture ending in a ftraight canula. 
Animal Limax. 

I. Corneus. Long JVelk. Thick, ftrong. Vo- 
lutions 8, ftriated parallel with the vo- 
lutions. Beak long. Length 2 inches. 
On the coaft. 

TROCHUS. A fingle Ihell, fpiral, fub- 
conic. Aperture fomewhat angular or 
roundifli, narrow at the top. Colu- 
mella oblique. 

1. Pharaonius. Top Shelly or Venus Bugle. Um- 

bilicated, oval, ftriated ; with alternate 
black and white fpots in tranfverfe 
rows. Aperture and umbilicus dentat- 
ed. Dale Harw. 381. 4. 

2. Cornulus. Sfnall Umbilicated Top Shell. Size 

of a waiftcoat button. Tranfverfely 
waved and ftriated with brown. Vo- 
lutions 5, with a raifed line or cord 
between. On the Eaft coaft. Dale 
Harw. 381. 

3. Zizyphinus. Pyramidal Sea Snail. White, 

with reddifli fpots in the middle of each 


2Q4 VERMES. T E S T A C f aT 

volution. Somewhat like the laft, but 
without cord. Dale Harw. 380. 

TURBO. Shell fingle> fpiral. Aperture 

orbicular, contraded, entire. Animal 

1. Littoreus. Periwincle. Volutions 5, flriated. 

2. Duplicatus White, pyramidal, 

like a fcrew. A double ridge along the 
middle of the volutions, which are 
about 12 in number. Length 3 inches. 

3. Perverfus. ...... Yellowifti white, thin. 

Volutions 7, contrary, i. e. from right 
to left. Length ^ inch. Near the 
trunks of old trees. 

4. Mufcorum Oval, yellowifh, 

pellucid. Volutions 6. Aperture com- 
prelFed, narrow. Length i inch. On 
old mofs-grown walls. 


HELIX. Snails. Shell llngle, fpiral, fub- 
diaphanous, fragile. Aperture con- 
tra6led, fubrotund, lunated on the in- 
ner fide. Animal Limax. 

I. Lapicida Brown or horn colour, 

convex on both fides. Volutions 5, 
with tranfverfe reddifh ftriae. Apex a 
little prominent, perforated- Margin 
of the volutions fharp. Aperture large, 
oval, tranfverfe, and white within. 
Diameter | inch, In woods in Lin- 

2. Pla- 


2. Planorbis. Brown. Both fides 

convex. Volutions 4, with a promi- 
nent fharp margin. Aperture oval, ob- 
lique, circumfcribed. Diameter |. inch. 
In rivulets. 

3. Vortex Black-brown. Voluti- 

ons 5. Diameter y inch. Aperture 
not circumfcribed ; otherwife like the 

4.,, Cornea Brown, with very ml- 

, '* nute raifed ftriae. Volutions 4. Con- 

r' cave on both fides. Diameter i inch. 

Snail has red horns, and emits a crim- 
fon liquor. In ftill rivers and pools. 

5. Pomatia . Afli colour. Volutions 

5. Aperture fomewhat lunar, reflex- 
ed, with a deep external finus on the 
left fide. Size of a Pigeon's egg. In 
the South. Eaten in France. 

6. Arbuftorum Yellow, fpotted or 

marbled with white. Volutions 5, 
with a fingle grey belt along the middle. 
Aperture lunar, with a double margin, 
fiddle fize. In fhady thickets, 

7. Vivipara Black-brown, with 2 

or 3 brown belts. Volutions 5. A- 
pex pointed. Aperture round, near 
which is a deep finus. In ftill river* 
and pools. 

f . Nemoralis. Common Garden Snail. Colour 

9. Stag- 


9. Stagnalis ' Ydtowifh, opacjue. 

Volutions 6. Aperture very large, 
oval. Apex flender, pointed. Length 
i{. inch. In pools. 

10. Putris. ....... Yellowifh, very th'm. 

Volutions 3. Apex obtufe. Aperture 
large, oval. Length 4 inch. In rivers 
and pools. •-jij ^ 

11. Tentaculata Olive colour. Vo- 

lutions 5. Aperture oval, clofed hy a 
valve, and the whole fhell covered by 
an argilaceous cruft. In rivers and 

12. Auricularia Yellowifh, pellu- 

cid. Volutions 4, the 3 lower very 
fipajl. Aperture very large. Length 
I inch. In rivers and pools. 

NERITA. Shell fingle, fpiral, gibbous.. 
Aperture femiorbicular ; Lip tranfverfe, 
truncated. Animal Limax. 

1. Glaucina. S^a Snail. Reddifh white, fmooth, 

thick. Volutions 5 ; the firft very 
large, the reft fmall, with 5 belts fpot- 
ted with brovi^n. Length not quite 'I 
inch. On the (hore. 

2. Fluviatilis Greenifh blue, thick, 

ftrong, reticulated, fpotted. Volu- 
tions 2. Size of a fmall pea. InriveK. 

3. Littoralis Greenifh brown, re- 

ticulated. Volutions 3. Apex a little 


.VERMES. T * S T A <: fi A.' 9.-Of 

prominent. Length 4 inch. On the 
fea fhore. Liji, Jngl.ib^, t. 3. f. 13. 

HALIOTIS. Shell fingle, auriform, flat; 
difk longitudinally perforated. Animal 

Limax. - • ; 

'I. Tuberculata. Sea Ear. Oval. Convex fide 
reddifh brown, with fpiral ridges, and 
6 or 7 'round holes. Concave fide mo- 
ther of pearl. Length 4 inches 5 
breadth 2|. On the (hore. 

PATELLA. Shell fingle, fubconic, not 
voluted. Animal Z/W;ic 

1. Vulgata. Common Limpet^ or Pop Shell, Li- 

vid grey. Conic with 14 obfolete an- 
gles. Apex obtufe, and not in the 
center. From the apex to the edge il. 
inch. Diameter of the aperture 2 inches. 
On the coaft. 

2. Lacuftris Oval, fragile, pellucid. 

Vertex pointed, reflexed. Diameter 
4 inch. In the rivers Air and Warf in 

SERPULA. Shell fingle, tubular, ad- 
hering to other bodies. Animal Tere- 

I. Spirorbis Orbicular, fpiral, re- 
gular. Volutions above inwardly fub- 
caniculated, gradually lefs. Adheres 
to fea weeds on the coaft. 



SABELLA. Tubular, compofed of par-- 
tides of fand united by a membrane. 
Animal Nereis, 

I. Alviolata. EngUJh tubular Sand Coral. Com- 
pofed of numerous cells. Animal half 
an inch long. On the Yarmouth 


Coral, calcareous, fixed, built by animals. 
Animal Mollufca, compofite, 

MADREPORA. Coral, with cavities la- 
mellofo-fteUated. Animal Medufa. 

I. Muficalis Fafciculated, with co- 
rals cylindrical, ftriated, diftant, con- 
ne£led by numerous tranfverfe mem- 
branes. On the Irifti coafl. 

MILLEPORA. Coral, with turbinated 
cylindrical pores. Animal, Hydra. 

1. Fafcialis. Stony foUaceous Coralline^ Mem- 

branaceous, of many branches, with a 
great number of oval pores on each fur- 
face. Found adhering to an Oifter- 
lhell,on thecoaft of thelfleofWight. 

2. Polymorpha Short, irregular 

ramifications of equal thicknefs in all 
parts, of a ftony, chalky appearance ; 
fometimes livid red. Near Falmouth, 
IfleofMan, Ireland. 



CELLEPORA. Coral, fubmembranaceous, 
compofed of round cells. Animal 

I. Pumicofa Appears, in the mi- 

crofcope, like a pumice ftone. Found 
on the Sickle Coraline, in irregular 
lumps like white fand tenaceoufly u- 


Stem vegetating, and changing into an ani- 
mated flower, or efflorefcent compoflte animal. 

GORGONIA. Stem radicated, horny, 
continued, branching ; bafe fpreadino- 
and covered with a bark. Florets hy- 
dra, proceeding from lateral pores. 

1. Placomus. JVarted Sea Fan. Like the branch 

of a crab tree, incrufted. Florets ftel- 
lated, with 8 fetaceous rays. On the 
Cornifli coaft. 

2. Anceps. Sea IVilhw. Stem and branches 

comprelTed, with porous calcareous 

3. Flabellum. Venus Fan. Branches compref- 

fed on the inner fide, and connefted by 
intermediate necwork. Cortex yellow. 

ALCYONIUM. Florets i:^Y/r^, between 
the cortex. Epidermis veficular, po- 

P I. Digi- 

2i0 VERMES. 20aPrtYTA. 

1. Digitatum. Dead'TTKtn'i Hand. Without 

ftcm, coriaceous, wrinkled, foft. VVhen 
recent, covered with minute papillae, 
• jvfrith a ftar of 8 points on the top of 
each, and each point contains a poly- 
pus with 8 fingers. Frequently ta- 
ken up by fiftiermen trawling for flat 
fifh, on the Kentifli coaft. 

2. Schlofferi Subrotund, fiefhy, li- 

vid, covered by a thin fkin. Florets 
large, diflinft, but little elevated, ftel- 
lated with 6— lO points, and with a 
pore at the bafe. On the cornifh coafl. 

3. Burfa. Sea Purfe. Subglobous, foft green. 

JL. Ficus. Sea Fig. Lobed like the kn^s of 
animals. Dark olive, fiefey, fmells 
difagreeably. Infide full of yellow par- 
ticles. Surface covered v^^th fmall ilars 
of fix rays. Near Sheernefa. 

SPONGIA. Stem radicated, flexile, bi- 
bulous. Pores on rtie furface refpirc 
■ water. 

1. Oculata. Branched Sponge. Branched, ir- 

regular, erea, fine, tender, tranfpar- 
ent, yellow, interwoven, inofculating, 
comprefied. On the coaiL 

2. Dicotoma. Forked Sponge. Green, erea, cy- 

lindrical, dicotomous, wooly, of a com- 
paa fubftance, tough. On the Corn- 
ifli and Yorkfhire coaft. 

3. Lacuf- 


7. Lacuftris. Creeping Sponge, with erejSt, cy- 
lindrical, obtufe branches. At the 
bottom of lakes in Weftmoreland. 

4. Fluviatilis. River Sponge. Green, ereft, fra- 
gile, irregular, of many branches. In 
the Thames, Cam, &c. 

FLUSTRA. Stem radicated, covered with 
cellular pores. Florets Hydra, ifTuing 
from poriform cells. 

I, Foliacea. Broad- leaved Horawrack. Branched, 
foliaceous, membranaceous, flexile, 
fpongy, with alternate arched cells on 
each furface. Homy when dry. On 
the coaft. 

i^, .Truncata. Narrow-leaved Hcrnwrad. Leaves 
truncated, and cells difpofed in longi- 
tudinal lines. 

3. Pilofa. Irregular Spongy foliaceous Coralline. 
Cells in the form of inverted cones j 
apertures fpinous, 

TUBULARIA. Stem radicated, filiform, 
tubular. Florets terminal, folitary. 

1. Indivifa. Tubular Coralline. Like a bundle 

of oaten ftraws. Tubes diflindl 5 or 6 
inches long, filled with a reddifh liquor, 
on the'extremitles of which are polypes 
with plumed crefts. 

2. Ramofa. Small ramified tubular Coralline. Ax- 

illae twifted. On the extremity of the 
tubes are polypes, like thofe found in 
ditches by Monf. Trembley. 

P 2 3, Fiihi- 


3. Fiftulofa. Bugle Coralline. Tubular, jointed, 

progrelTively divaricated. 

4. Mufcoides. Tubular wrinckled Coralline. Com- 

pofed of a number of horny, elaftic, 
fingle tubes, i or 2 inches long, and 
about the thicknefs of a fine ftraw. A 
crimfon polypus on the extremity of 

5. Campanulata. Creeping, with 

campanulated tubes, and a crefted poly- 
pus. Extreanily minute. 

CORALLINA. Stem radicated, jointed, 
thready, calcareous. 

1. Officinalis. Coralline of the Shops. Fixed to 

rock and fhells by ftony joints. Stem 
pinnated by branches oppofite to each 
other. Joints like part of an inverted 
cone a little ccmpreffed. Surface co- 
vered with minute circular cells. Co- 
lour various when recent, but con- 
ftantly white when dry. 

2. Rubens. Crejled or Cock's-comb Coralline. 

Like mofs growing in round tufts, re- 
fembling a bird's creft, fpread fiat on 
each other. White, red, or green. 
The microfcope {hews the filaments to 
be dichotomous. 

3. Corniculata. White Jlender jointed Coralline. 

Dichotomous, pinnated below, with a 
kind of horn on each fide of the tops of 
the lower joints. Adheres to fmall 



SERTULARIA. Stem radicated, fibrous, 
naked, jointed. Florets Hydra, one 
at each joint. 

I. Rofacea. Lilly fiaxvering Corallhie. Branches 
alternate, with truncated oppc lite den- 
ticles, and veficular florets like the 
flowers of the lilly. On Orfteis. 

'2. Pumila. Sea Oak Coralline. Branches irre- 
gular. Denticles in pairs, oppofite, 
with curved points. Veficles irregular. 
Polypes on the extremity of both ve- 
ficles and denticles. This little creep- 
ing Coralline is found proceeding from 
fmall tubuli, on the broad leaved iii- 

''■• dented Sea Oak Fucus, about Sheer- 


3. Operculata. Sea Hair. Grows in thick 

tufts, the filaments of which, lie upon 
the ground. Branches alternate. Ve- 
• '- ficles refemble jars with covers. 

4. Tamarifca. Sea Tarnarijk, Branches alter- 

nate. Denticles oppofite. Veficles 
fliaped like a top, with a fhort tube in 
the center. In deep water at the en- 
terance of .the harbour of Dublin. 

5. Abietina. Sea Fir. Root wrinkled, tubular. 

Stems ftiff", horny. Branches alternate. 
Denticles alternate, with narrow 
mouths. Veficles oval, with narrow 
necks. On Oifters, Mufcles, &c. 

6. Cupreflina. Sea Cyprefs. Denticles fubaciite, 

and clofcly united to the liem. Branches 
long, thin. Veficles bidcncate. 

P 3 Ar- 

'214 VERM is. ZOOPHYfA.' 

' ^— - Argentea. Squirrel*} Tail. ErciSt, with 
thick tufts of alternately denticulated 
branches. Denticles pointed and curv- 
ed inwards. Veficles like jars. Oh 
Oifters, in the ifle of Sheppy. 

J. Rugofa. Snail-trefoil Coralline. Roots irre- 
gular, creeping, tubulous, adhering 
to the narrow- leaved Hornwrack. 
Branches irregular. Denticles alter- 
nate, tranfvferfely furrowed, and fhaped 
like the cones of the Fir. Veficles of 
the fame fliape, but with 3 {harp Teeth 
on the top. Near Brighthelmftone. 

$. Halecina. Herring-bone Coraline. Eredl, tu- 
bular, pinnated. Denticles alternate, 
obfolete. Veficles oval. Refembles the 
fpine of a Herrinig. 

g. Thuja. Botile-hrujh, Coralline. Arifes from 
horny tubuli, firmly adhering to Oifters. 
Stem zigzag, branched at the top. 
Branches forked, l^enticles clofe to 
the branch. Veficles at the bottom of 
the bi"anches, oval, covered. On the 
northern coaft. 

10. Myriophillum. Fheafant's-tail Coralline. Root 

fpongy. Stem gibbous on one fide^ and 
feathered on the other. Denticles like 
cups, all on one fide of the pinnae. 
Height 10 or 12 inches. In deep wa- 
ter on the Irifh coaft. 

11. F^lcata. Sickle Corallirie. Adheres to r6ck^ 

by wrinckled tubes. Stem waved. 
Branches pinnated and curved. Den- 


tides on one fide of the pinnae. Vef 
ficles like jars. On the Kentifli coaft. 

12. Pluma. Podded Coralline. Like the laft, ex- 

cept that the denticles are fbaped like 
the flowers of the Lilly of the valley. 
From the branches arife little pods, in- 
compafled with ftudded ribs. On 
Mufcles, &c. near Dublin. 

13. Antennina. Lobjier s-horn Coralline^ or Sea 

Beard. Branches alternate, ftraight. 
Denticles verticillated, quatern, beard- 
ed. Veficles verticillated, with the 
aperture oblique. 

14. Vcrticillata. Horfe Tail. Branches alter- 

nate. Denticles obfolete. Veficles 
on twifted foot-ftalks, fhaped like cups, 
verticillated ; cups denticulated round 
the brim. Near Whitehaven. 

15. Volubilis. Small climbing Coralline. Ve- 

ficles like bells on the fummit of long 
{lender flems, twifted round other Co- 

16. Syringa Twifted ftems, much 

fhorter than the laft. Cups cylindrical. 
Adheres to the Sea-fir Coralline. 

17. Cufcuta. Climbing Dodder-like Coralline. Stems 

no thicker than hair. Branches oppo- 
fire, fimple. Veficles oval, axillary. 
On the Podded Fucus. 

18. Uva. Grape Coralline. Extreamly minute. 

The microfcope (liews clufters of ovnl 
P 4 veficles 


veficles like grapes attached to the 
fiem ; thefe are polypes. 

19. Lendigera. Nit Coralline. Stem jointed. 

Veficles cylindrical, arranged like or- 
gan pipes on one fide of the ftem. Mi- 
nute. Climbs on Fuci, &c. 

20. Geniculata. Knotted -thread Coralline. Stem 

waved, jointed. Denticles alternate, 
contorted. Veficles alternate, like jars 
with a cover. Adheres to Podded Fu- 
cus. Dover, Harwich. 

21. Dichotoma. Sea-thread Coralline. Stem no 

thicker than a fine thread, zigzag, 
jointed, tough, pliant, with ringlets 
at each joint, and a twifted foot-ftallc, 
each fupporting an oval veficle, fome 
clofed, and others open at the top. Oil 
the fouth-weft coaft. 

22. Spinofa. 5//,^ Coralline. Stem compofed of 

filky threads, zigzag, with fliort fork- 
ed branches. Irregular rows of pores 
on one fide of the branches. Adheres 
to ftones. 

23. Pinnata. Sea Brijlle. Stem jointed. Branches 

alternate, capillary, denticulated. Ve- 
ficles fhaped like Olives, Grows on 
Mufcles, like fliff briftles, which, 
when dried, bend all one way. 

24. Polyzonias.- Great Tocth Coralline. Den- 

ticles large, oval. Veficles tranfvcrfely 
ftriated. Stem flender, twifted. On 

25. Liche- 


25. Lichenaftrum. Sea Spleenwori. Stem up- 

right, jointed, comprefTed, denticulat- 
ed. Branches ftraight, alternate, den- 
ticulated. Denticles alternate, obtufe, 
numerous, and clofe prefied to the 
branches. Near the harbour of Dub- 

26. Burfaria. Shepherd' s-purfe CoralUne. Pearl 

colour. Branches irregular, v/ith nu- 
merous denticles, like brackets, onpo- 
fite.. A figure like the head of a to- 
ba'co-pipe on the top of each denticle. 
Branches extieamly fine. On Fuci. 

27. Loriculata. Coc:t of Mail Coralline. Grows 
^-*'"'" in large thick tufts. Stem and branches 
3- are compofed of denticles or cells, op- 

pofite, and obliquely truncated at the 
top, which is broader than the bottom, 
lile of Sheppy. 

28. Faftigiatn. Soft-feathered Coralline. Appears 

in its perftcl ftate like the branch of a 
fV.rub, with many leaves or feathers. 
Branches forked. Denticles alternate, 
femicyliudrical, pointed, with a black 
■ fpot in -the middle. 

29. Avicularia. Birds-head Coralline. Like a fea- 

ther about i\ inch long. Branches com- 
pofed of cells with a (harp denticle on 
one fide, and a globular veficle like a 
bird's head, wirh the bill wide open. 
Very brittle. Near the harbour of 
Dublin. ^ 

2 30. Scru- 


30. Scrupofa. Creeping Stony Coralline. Branches 

dichotomous. Denticles alternate, an- 
gulated, fpinous. 

31. Rcpens. Creeping Coralline. Branches di- 

chotomous. Denticles alternate, bi- 
dentated. Adheres to fhells. 

32. Ciliata. Ciliated Coralline. Branches dicho- 

tomous, ereft, with infundibiliform 
cells joined at their bafes, and with 
wide mouths bearded on the upper lip. 

33. Eburnea. Tufted Ivory Coralline. Branched. 

Cells arched, conjunct, gibbous, with 
a neck not in the center. 

34. Cornuta. Goat's-hom Coralline. Branches 

alternate. Cells fmgle, fhaped like 
goats horns inverted, with a circular 
aperture, and a fingle upright hair near 
the top of each. Very minute, 

35. Loricata. Buirs-horn Coralline. Branches 

alternate. Cells fmgle, like inverted 
horns inferted into each other, with a 
fhort hair on the top of each. Very 

36. Anguina. Snake Coralline. Not branched. 

Stem an irregular tube, from which pro- 
ceed, here and there, fmall oblong tef- 
taceous figures like fnakes without the 
under jaw. 

VORTICELLA. Stem fixed, vibrating 

the ifloret in a vortex. Floret with a 

2 vafcular 

vafcular calyx : mouth contra6lilej cir 
liated, terminal. 

1. Polypina. Clujiring Polypus Coralline. When 
at reft appears like a bunch of grapes ; 
but has a power of expanding into the 
form of a little tree bearing large p6ar<> 
"without leaves* 

2* Anaftatica Compcfite ; florets nu- 
merous, campatiulate. Stem rigefcent. 
In frefh water, on fhells and plants. 

3. Crataegaria. ,..*••• Compofite. Stem 
branched. Florets globous. Tenta- 
cula 2. In frefh water. 

^. Opercularia Compofite. Stem 

branched. Florets oval. In frefli wa- 

5. tJmbellaria Compofite. Stem 

umbelled. Florets globous ciliated. 
In frelh water. 

B. Convallaria. . . . i . . Simple, gregarious. 
Florets companulate. In frelh water. 

y. Urceolaris Simple, pedunculated, 

mouth dentated. In lakes. 

HYDRA. Stem not fixt to any particular 
fubftance. Gelatinous, with a fingle 
Floret. Mouth terminal, environed 
by feveral tentacula. 

I. Viridis Tentacula 10. Short. 

Green. In rivers. 

2. Fufca. 


2. Fufca Brown. Tentacula 8. In 

frefh water. 

3. Grifea Grey. Tentacula 7. 

long. In clear frefh water . 

4. Hydatula. Tentacula 4, obfo- 

lete. Like a pellucid bladder, with a 
cylindrical neck. In the abdomen of 
Iheep, fwine, mice, &c. between the 
peritoneum and the inteitines. 

5. Stentorea. Tentacula ciliated. 

Body infundibuliform. In frefli water. 

TAENIA. Body long, jointed, like a 
chain. Mouth aiid vifcera to each 

J. Solium. Mouths marginal, one in each 
joint. In the inteitines of various ani- 

2. Vulgaris. Common Tape Worm. Mouth la- 
teral, 2 in each joint. In the intef- 
tines of men and brutes. 


GENERA, iS'c. 

Acarus. — 







Ammodites. • — 

Ampelis. ■ 

Amphibia. — 

Anas. ' 


Anomia. • 

Akseres. — 


Aphrodita. — 

A pis. 

Apodes. — 




Afilus. • 


Auelabus. — 




Bos. — 



















■ 33 




- 8 







- 69 

Cancer. — 

Canis. - 

Cantharis. - 
Capra. — 

Carabeus. - 
Cardium. — 
Caffida. — 

Cellepora. - 
Cete. — 

Ceranibix. — 
Cicada. — 


Cimex. • 

Clupea. - 



Coccus. — 











Culex. — 



• 104 


- 58 
■ 109 


- 92 

- S 


- 39 

- 94 

- 106 

- 119 


• 78 

- 93 

- 127 

- 8> 

- 45 

- 29 

- 178 

- »7 

- 212 



- iS 

- ^77 

- 97 


( 2i2 ) 





Elater. — 
Equus. — 

felis. — 



































1 14 


Hdix. — 

Homo. ■ 
Hippobofca. — 


Hirundo. — 


Hydra, ■ 

Ichneumon. — 

Intestina. — - 
Julus. ■- 

Labrus. - — 

Lacerta. — 

Lanius. — 

Larus. 1— 

Lepas. — 

Lepifma. — 

Leptura. - 

Lepus. — 

Lernxa. - 

Limax. — 

Lithophyta. — 
Lophius. ■ 
Loxia. ■ 

Lucanus. ■ 
Lumbricus. • 


J 6a 

















— 64 

- 49 

— igo 

- 199 

Mad re- 

( 223 ) 

Med u fa. 
Mergus. — 

Millepora. — 


Monoculus. — 
Mordella. — 
Motacilla. — 
Mugil. ^^ 
Mullus. — — 
Murex. — 



Muftela. — 


MytiliK. — 
Myxine. — 


Nepa. — — 


Nerita. — — 



Onifcus. — 

Oftrea. — 

Otis. — - 

Ovis. — 

Panorpa. — 
Papilio. — 
Par us. — — 



• I 




















■ 45 


- 6 

Perca. — 
Phoca. — 




Picae. — — 

Picus. — — 


Pod Ufa. 










Salmo. — ^ 



Sciurus. — 





Silpha. — 
Sircx. •^— 
Sitta. — — 
Solcn. — — " 

( 224 ) 

Sorex. — 4' Thoracici. • 72 

Sparus. ■■ " — 75 Thrips. — 128 

Sphex. — . 167 Tipula. — 171 

Sphinx. " — 137 Trachinus.- 69 

Spongia. • — 210 Trigla. — — — 78 

Squalus-. < 62 Tringa. ■ — 36 

StaphiHnus. — — 112 Trochus. 203 

Sterna. — 32 Turbo. — — — 204 

Strix. 14 Turdus. ■ — 47 

Stutnus. ■ » 47 

Sus. ■ ■ ■• 7 Venus. — — — ■ 199 

Sygnanthus. — — 65 Vermes. ■ 189 

Vefpa. . ■ 167 

Tabanus. 177 Velpertilio. i 

Taenia. — 220 Vcnicella. 218 

Talpa. — 4 Upupa. — 20 

Tellina. — ig8 Urfus. -' — 3 

Tenebrio. —— 1 1 1 

Tenthredo. 162 Yunx. • 18 

Termes. 181 

Tefta€ea. ■ ■ 195 Zeus. — 73 

Tetrodon. '--■■ 65 Zoophyta. 209 

Tetrao. — ~-. — 43 

S P E- 




Aberdavine. — 
Acorn-fifli. - 















Bernard the heriTiit- 

Bittern. — 






Brambling. — 


Breeze. ■ 



Bugkin. — 








, 26 







85, &c. 










. 50 








Bull. head. 



Butcher-bird. - 
Buzzard. — 13, 

Cabbage Butterfly. 

Carp. . - 

Cod. • 







Cock of the mountain. 43 
Cock of the wood. 





Coot, i ' — 

Coral. ' — 

• 43 





211, 212, 208, 

Cornllh Cough. 







Crab. - 



■ 17 
. 28 

• 51 

• 80 

- 185 

- 185 

— 20 

( 226 ) 




Cuckoo. — 

Cuckow-fpit, infedt. 
Curlew. — — — 


Dead-man's hand. 









Duck. — 

Dun Diver. 


Dunlin. — 












Erne. - 

Falcon. — 

Fincale. •— 






• 3 









Fly -catcher. 



Frog. — 
Fulmar. — 

Gad-fly. — 
Gadwall. — 
Gannet. — 
Gar-fifh. — 





God wit. 

Golden Eye. 


Gowry. — 




Grafs hopper. 





Grey. — — - 

Greenland Dove. 



( 227 ) 

Grous. — 


Gy rfalcon. 

Hare. — 
Hart. - 
Heath Cock. 
Hedgehog. — 
Hedge Sparrow. 
Hen-Harrier. - 
Heron. ■ 



Hog. ■ 




Horn-fifh. — ^ 
Hornwrack. — 


Horfe-tail. — 
Hound-fifh. — 



Jay. - 

Ink fifh. 



Kice. — — 









— 43 

— 4 

— 53 

— 1 1 

— 33 

— 82 

— II 

— 8 

— 74 

— 20 

— 167 

— 81 

— 211 


■ 2J5 

64, 63 

— 17 

— 35 

— «7 

— 195 

— 12 

— 20 





Land Rail. 












Lough Diver. 

Loufe. — 


Lyre. — 










Miller's thumb. — 
Minime. ■ 


MifTel bird. — 



Moihs — 139 
Mountain finch. — 





- 3' 57 








- 51 


C 228 ) 

Moor Game. 


Newt. ^ 


Old wife. 






Ox. - 

— 44 

— 5 


— 66 

— • 53 

— 17 

" 200 





- 48. 49 


= 7 








fainted Lady. 




Pearl. -- 




Picked Dog. 



Pike. — 



Pink. — 

Pkife. — 

Poor. — 


— 40 















Quail. • 




Raw Pollock. -— 

Redbreall. — 

Red Eye. 

Red Game. ■ 

Redfhank. -^ 


Redwing. ■■ 
Reed Sparrow. — 

Reeve. — • 



Ring Dove. 

Roach. — 






Rofe Chaffer. 

Roval William. 





20 2 



- I 




■ 44 






■ 45 





- 6s 



— — 76, 36 

Salmon. — 


- 79 


( 229 ) 

Sand Eel. 
Scad. — 
Scate. — 

Sea Adder. — 
Sea Bream. — 

Sea Calf. 

Sea Crow. 

Sea Cyprefs. — 
Sea Devil. — 
Sea Ear. -. 

Sea Egg. 

Sea Fan. 

Sea Fig. 

Sea Fir. 

Sea Flea. 

Sea Gudgeon. ■ 

Sea Hair. 

Sea Hedgehog. 

Seal. . 

Sea Lark. 

Sea Loach. • — 

Sea Louie. 

Sea Lungs. — 

Sea Mall. 

Sea Moufe. — 
Sea Nettle. — 

Sea Owl. 

Sea Pie. • 

Sea Purfc. 

S«a Sleeve. — 
Sea Snail. 65, 
Sea Spleenwort. — 
Sea Spider, ■ 

Sea Swallow. 

Sea Tamarifk. — 
§t-a Willow. 

- 68 

- 40 

- 37 




- 66 

- 7S 

- 2 

- 3« 

- 213 

- 64 



- 73 

- 213 

- »9 

72. 39 

- 71 

- 187 

- '94 

- 31 

- 192 

- 194 

- ^S 

- 40 

- 210 





Sea Wolf. 


Sea Wood-loufe. — 

Sea Serpents. 

Serpents. ■■ 


Shag. — — — 

Shark. 63, 64 

Shear-water. 28 

Sheep. — — y 

Sheldrake. 21. 2 









Smelt. — — 





Sol and Goofe. 





Squirrel. — 

Squirrel's tail. 


Star fifli. — 




S:oat. -— 

Stone Ciiatrer. 



















■ 47 







( ajo ) 

Stargeon. — 

Sunfifh. — 
Swallow. — 



Tench. — 
Tewit. — 
Throftle. - 




Tubfifh. — 
Turbot. — 
Turtle Dove. 

Venus Bugle. 
Venus Fan. 

Wa fp. 














Water Ouzel. 
Water Rail. 
Wheat-Ear. - 




White Cap. 
White Game 
White Horfe. 
White Nun. 

— 42» 

Whiting Pollack. — 
Whiting- pout. — — 
Wigeon. 1 

Wood Chat. — — 



Wood-loufe. — — 
Woodpecker. < 
Worms. — '■ 


31 yellowhammer. 

























ABDOMiNALEs. From Abdomen, the Belly. The 
4th Order of Clafs IV. Fifhes whofe belly-fins 
are behind the pectoral. Page 78. 

AcciPiTREs. From Accipiter, a Hawk. Birds of 
the Hawk kind. The ill Order in Clafs IJ. Page 

Amphibia. Clafs III. Page 59. The Englifh word 
Amphibious is too generally underllcod to require 

Apodes. From a priv. and tov;, pes, a foot. The 
ift Order of Clafs IV. Containing thofe Fifhes 
which have no belly-fins, which Linnasus confiders 
as feet. Page 67. 

Aptera. From a priv. and TTeooc, ala, a wing. The 
7th Order of Clafs V. Without V/ings. Page 

Bellu^. From Bellua, a bead. The 6ch Order 
of Clafs I. Page 7. 

Cete. From K»t©-, Cetus^ a Whale. The 7th 
Order in Clafs I. Page 8. 

DiPTERA. From -T/T/ 6©", ^//^/(TAT, double, and tt€- 
• for, ala, a wing. The 6th Oider of Clafs V. 

Containing thofe infedls which have two wings. 

Page 170. 

Fer^-. From Tera, a wild beall. The 3d Order of 
Clafs I. Page 2. 

Galling. From Gallina, a. Hen. The 5th Order 
of Clafs II. Page 42. 

Glires. From G/is, a Dormoufe. The 4th Order 
of Clafs I. Page 4. 

2 Grall^e. 

( 232 ) 

Grall^E. GralliS, ftilts. Having very long Legs. 
The 4th Order of Clafs II. Page 33. 

Hemiptera. From ti/j-Krvf, dimidius, half, and 
frmoi'i ala, a wing. The zd Order of Clafs V* 
Page 1 14. 

Hymenoptera. From t//u«f, memhrana, a mem- 
brane, TT'fof, aluy a wing. The 5th Order of 
Clafs V. Page 161. 

JuGULAREs. From Jugulum, the Neck. The 2d 
Order of Clafs IV. containing thofe Fifhes whofe 
lower fins are in the neck, before the pedoral. 
Page 6g. 

Lepidoptera. From Kn'sUt a fcale or thin plate> 
and TTj?cf, aluy a wing. The 3d Order of CJafs V. 
Page 128. 

LiTHOPHYTA. From AlO©-, lafut a ftone, and 91/- 
(tk;^ nature, fubftance. The 4th Order of Clafs VI. 
Page 208. 

Mammalia. From Mamma, a Pap, Breaft or Dug. 
The I ft Clafs of the Animal Kingdom, compre- 
hending thofe which fuckle their young. Page i. 

MoLtuscA. Mollufca, a fipecies of nut with a foft 
fhell. The 2d Order of Clafs VI. Page 192. 

Neuroptera. From ysu^or, nert'tu, a nerve, and 
TTSfoc, ala, a wing. The 4th Order of Clafs V. 
Page 156. 

Passer Es. From Pajfer, a Sparrow. Order th€ 6th 
of Clafs II. Page 45. 

Pecora, From Pectis, a flock of fheep, &c. The 
5th Order of Clafs 1. Page 6. 

Pic^. From Pica, a Magpie. T-he 2d Order in 
Clafs II. Page 16. 


( 233 ) 

Primates. From PrimaSf firft in rank, moft con- 
fiderable. The ill Order in Clafs I. Page i. 

Testacea. From Tejla a fhell. The 3d Order of 
Clafs VI. Page 195. 

Thoracici. From Thorax, the Breaft, or that part 
of the body which contains the heart and lungs. 
The 3d Order of Clafs IV. Containing thofe Fifhes 
whofe ventral or belly fins are placed immediately 
under the peroral fins. Page 72. 

Vermes. From Vermis, a Worm. Clafs VI. Page 

ZooPHYTA. From Z^ov, an animal, and 'tvr/f, na- 
ture, ftrudure, &c. The 5th Order of Clafs V. 
Page 209. 

End of Vo l. L 


Page 10 line 4. for Accipetres, read Accipitres 
16 dele Frugilegus N". 3. 
igz for Mollufea, read Mollufca 


M-, , 

> I 

:' / 








Ml , 

\ 1 ■>,■■'■' 1 . 


W-\^'' i;-si:: :;t'5ii